Multilateral Environmental Agreements
Multilateral environmental agreements subscribed by Malaysia


On the global front, Malaysia is party to various biodiversity-related multilateral environmental agreements, such as the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). Malaysia is also party to agreements covering a wide range of subjects including trade in endangered species, protection of important wetlands, biosafety, climate change, transboundary movement of hazardous wastes, haze and laws of the sea. Our obligations are numerous and we need to strengthen our policy framework to enable us to fulfill our responsibilities.

In addition to the CBD, Malaysia is also party to various other biodiversity-related multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs) such as:-

  1. ASEAN Agreement on Transboundary Haze
  2. Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal
  3. Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety (CPB)
  4. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES)
  5. Convention on Wetlands of International Importance (Ramsar Convention)
  6. Kyoto Protocol to the UNFCCC
  7. Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer
  8. Rotterdam Convention
  9. Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants
  10. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)
  11. United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS)
  12. Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer
  13. World Heritage Convention (WHC)

These MEAs complement and mutually reinforce each other in defence of the broad environment, including measures that are needed for national and international biodiversity management.


The call to address the challenge of biodiversity conservation weighs heavily on everyone. Although we may not personally have directly caused or benefitted from the loss of biodiversity, we are at a historic turning point where urgent and decisive actions taken now can reverse alarming trends and restore the nation’s biodiversity. In doing so, we need to establish a stronger foundation for achieving the national vision for sustainable development.

For these reasons, this Policy is designed to engage everyone in Malaysia. Everyone has a part to contribute, and we all need to make conservation our responsibility for the sake of the future generations.

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