Native Plants

Angiopteris evecta

Elephant Fern
LC
Least Concern
Malaysia Plant Red List
Peninsular Malaysia ver 3.1, 2021
LC
Least Concern
Peninsular Malaysia Plant Red List *
2020
* Assessed according to the IUCN Red List Categories & Criteria Version 3.1
QR Code
SSN 10313
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Taxonomy

The taxonomic status is pending for approval

Description

Angiopteris evecta, commonly referred to as the elephant fern, king fern or paku gajah in Malay is a large and very primitive fern. It can grow up to 7 m with massive fronds up to 5 m long and petioles up to 2 m long (Huxley, 1992). The fronds make a spectacular display and nice spotted shade that are suitable to be grown as an ornamental. This elephant fern reproduces vegetatively or by producing spores. Its large globular rhizomes can grow up to 1.5 m tall while its adult leaves can bear thousands of sporangia, each of which produces 1,440 spores (Haupt, 1940; Christenhusz & Toivonen, 2008). There are fleshy stipules at the bottom of each petiole that bear many buds which will grow into new plants when the stipules break off and find suitable ground. This species can be found growing along water courses in the understory of rainforests from sea level to an altitude of 1,500 m. It is widespread throughout Malaysia, Polynesia, New Guinea and Australia (Jones, 1987).

Habits

  Part Habit
 
Terrestrial   —   An animal that lives on/near the ground or a plant that grows on/in/from land

Habitats

No Description Suitability Seasonality
1
Forest → Lowland Dipterocarp Forest (Malayan, Burmese)
Unknown Unknown
2
Forest → Upper Hill Dipterocarp Forest
Approximately 762-1219 m (2500-400 ft) above sea level in inland ranges; 609-914 m (2000-3000 ft) in isolated mountains and coastal ranges
Unknown Unknown
References : http://www.iucnredlist.org/technical-documents/classification-schemes/habitats-classification-scheme-ver3

Assessment

Year Published Assessment Red List Category Version
2021 Malaysia Plant Red List
Least Concern (LC)
Peninsular Malaysia
3.1
2020 Peninsular Malaysia Plant Red List
Least Concern (LC)
N/A
2010 Malaysia Plant Red List
Not Evaluated (NE)
N/A

Location

by State Location
  • Johore 3
  • Kedah 1
  • Kelantan 1
  • Pahang 6
  • Perak 2
  • Perlis 1
  • Selangor 3
  • Terengganu 2
  • Federal Territories of Kuala Lumpur 1
by Protected Areas Location
  • Wildlife Sanctuary/Reserve 1
  • National/State Park 1
Based on publications, specimens, and images

Biodiversity Experts

Profile
Yong Kien Thai (Dr.)
University of Malaya (UM)
  • Moss
  • Vascular (Taxonomy)
  • Ferns (Taxonomy)
  • Protected Areas
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Evolution
  • Taxonomy
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
PM - Peninsular Malaysia; SBH - Sabah; SWK - Sarawak; SEA - Southeast Asia; W - World;

References

Article
  1. Christenhusz, Maarten J. M. & Toivonen, Tuuli K. (2008). Giants invading the tropics: The oriental vessel fern, Angiopteris evecta (Marattiaceae). : pp. 1215-1228
  2. Salleh, N., Azeman, S., Kiew, R., Kamin, I. & Chung, R.C.K. (2017). Plant Checklist of the Bukit Nanas Forest Reserve, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. One Ecosystem. 2: pp. 41 — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  3. Haupt, Arthur W. (1940). Sex Organs of Angiopteris evecta. 67 (2): pp. 125-129
  4. Jaman, R. & Latiff, A. (1999). The Pteridophyte Flora of Pulau Tioman, Peninsular Malaysia. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Supplements (6): pp. 77-100
  5. Norhayati, I., Getha, K., Muhd Haffiz, J., Mohd Ilham, A., Lili Sahira, H., Siti Syarifah, M.M. & Muhammad Syamil, A. (2013). In Vitro Antitrypanosomal Activity of Malaysian Plants. Journal of Tropical Forest Science 25 (1): pp. 52-59
  6. Maideen, H., Nur-Adilah, N., Damanhuri, A., Jaman, R., Miran, S. & Nazre, M. (2005). Pteridophytes of the Southwestern Endau-Rompin National Park, Johor, Malaysia. The Forests and Biodiversity of Selai Endau-Rompin. pp. 91-94
  7. Lim, C.L., Siti Munirah, M.Y. & Kiew, R. (2009). Botany of the Berembun Forest Reserve, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. Malayan Nature Journal 61 (2): pp. 143-189
Book
  1. Adler, P.H. (2002). A Guide to Taman Botani Putrajaya: Tropical Roots. Perbadanan Putrajaya, Malaysia. pp. 13.
  2. Boo, C.M., Omar-Hor, K. & Ou-Yang, C.L. (2003). 1001 Garden Plants in Singapore. National Parks Board, Singapore. pp. 501.
  3. Phang, S.M., Affendi, Y.A., Ooi, J.L.S. & Haji, A.J.M. (2008). Natural History of The Pulau Tioman Group of Islands. Institute of Ocean and Earth Sciences (IOES), University of Malaya, Malaysia. pp. 292.
  4. Shaharuddin, M.I., Sahidin, A.R., Nor, S.M., Jalil, M.S., Razani, U., Nik Mohd. Shah, N.M. & Latiff, A. (2005). Gunung Nuang, Selangor: Persekitaran Fizikal dan Kepelbagaian Biologi. Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 221.
  5. Shaharuddin, M.I., Dahalan, H.T., Abdullah Sani, Shafie, Jalil, M.S., Faridah-Hanum, I. & Latiff, A. (2005). Taman Negeri Gunung Stong, Kelantan: Pengurusan, Persekitaran Fizikal, Biologi dan Sosio-ekonomi. Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 442.
  6. Jones, David L. (1987). Encyclopaedia of ferns : an introduction to ferns, their structure, biology, economic importance, cultivation and propagation. Timber Press, United States of America. pp. 1-433.
  7. Noraini, T., Ruzi, A.R., Jaman, R. & Latiff, A. (2008). Ferns and Fern-allies: Taman Paku Pakis UKM, Volume 1. Fakulti Sains dan Teknologi, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 63.
  8. Abdul Rahman, A.R., Mohd Nasir, A.H., Ahmad Fadzil, A.M., Richard, A.M. & Latiff, A. (2014). Hutan Gunung Besar Hantu, Negeri Sembilan: Pengurusan Hutan, Persekitaran Fizikal dan Kepelbagaian Biologi. Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 254.
  9. Shaharuddin, M.I., Che, H.H., Mohd. Puat, Dahalan, Jalil, M.S., Norhaidi, Y. & Latiff, A. (2005). Hutan Simpan Ulu Muda, Kedah: Pengurusan, Persekitaran Fizikal Dan Biologi. Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 310.
  10. Azahar, M., Azman, A.R., Che, H.H., Koh, H.L., Norhayati, A. & Latiff, A. (2007). Taman Rimba Kenong, Pahang: Pengurusan, Persekitaran Fizikal dan Kepelbagaian Biologi. Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 248.
  11. Huxley, A., Griffiths, M. & Levy, M. (1992). The New Royal Horticultural Society Dictionary of Gardening. MacMillan Press, United States of America. pp. 1-3200.
  12. Shaharuddin, M.I., Mokhtar, M.I., Wan Yusof, W.A., M. Rahim, R. & Latiff, A. (2004). Taman Negeri Endau Rompin : Pengurusan, Persekitaran Fizikal dan Biologi. Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 378.
  13. Abdul Rahman, A.R., Koh, H.L., Muhamad, A., Wan Yusof, W.K. & Latiff, A. (2011). Hutan Simpan Melaka: Pengurusan Hutan, Persekitaran Fizikal, Kepelbagaian Biologi dan Socio-ekonomi. Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 315.
  14. Nik Musa'adah, M., Nik Zanariah, N.M., Nor Azah, M.A. & Norini, H. (2017). Khazanah Perubatan Melayu: Tumbuhan Ubatan Jilid 1. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Malaysia. pp. xxiv, 519.
  15. Mohd. Rizal, S., Na'aman, J., Jalil, M.S., Nizam, M.S., Latiff, A. & Azahar, M. (2006). Gunung Mandi Angin, Terengganu: Pengurusan, Persekitaran Fizikal, Kepelbagaian Biologi dan Pelancongan Ekologi. Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 500.
  16. Yong, W.S.Y., Chua, L.S.L., Lau, K.H., Siti-Nur Fatinah, K., Cheah, Y.H., Yao, T.L., Rafidah, A.R., Lim, C.L., Syahida-Emiza, S., Ummul Nazrah, A.R., Nor-Ezzawanis, A.T., Chew, M.Y., Siti Munirah, M.Y., Julius, A., Phoon, S.N., Sam, Y.Y., Nadiah, I., Ong, P.T., Sarah Nabila, R., Suhaida, M., Muhammad-Alif Azyraf, A., Siti Eryani, S., Yap, J.W., Jutta, M., Azeman, S., Salleh, N., Kiew, R. & Chung, R.C.K. (2021). Malaysia Red List: Plants of Peninsular Malaysia, Volume 1, Issue/No. 2. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Malaysia. pp. 753.
  17. Ong, H.C. (2004). Tumbuhan Liar: Khasiat & Kegunaan Lain. Utusan Publications & Distribution Sdn. Bhd., Malaysia. pp. 241.
  18. Piggott, A.G. (1988). Ferns of Malaysia in Colour. Tropical Press Sdn. Bhd., Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. pp. 458.
Proceeding
  1. Conservation, Management and Development of Forest Resources: Proceedings of the Malaysia-United Kingdom Programme Workshop, 21-24 October 1996, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (1996)

Acknowledgements :- Ms. Aida Salihah Binti Abu Bakar, Ms. Amirah Hasanah Binti Mazlan, Ms. Asyifaa Syahirah Binti Md Padzil, Mrs. Aziemah Binti Kinan, Mr. Badrul Amin Bin Jaffar, Ms. Fatin Qurratul 'ain Binti Saberam, Mrs. Hakimah Binti Jaafar, Ms. Heng Pooi San, Ms. Kamilia Huda Binti Mohd Zaini, Mr. Mohamad Firdaus Bin Mohamad Ridzwan, Mr. Mohamad Ruzi Abdul Rahman, Mr. Nabil Arif Bin Abdul Naim, Ms. Noorkhalilie Binti Che Abd Aziz, Ms. Norazah Binti Norddin, Ms. Nur Farahin Binti Mustafa, Mrs. Nur Hazwanie Binti Abd Halim, Ms. Nurfadzilah Bt Azmi, Ms. Nurfarhana Hizan Binti Hijas, Ms. Nurliyana Binti Abd Rahman, Ms. Nurul Aimi Amirah Binti Mohd Zaki, Ms. Siti Zubaidah Binti Abdul Latif, Mr. Tan Kok Kiat & Mr. Yasser Mohamed Arifin

Species Citation :- Angiopteris evecta. Malaysia Biodiversity Information System (MyBIS). Accessed via https://www.mybis.gov.my/sp/10313. [Retrieved 29 May 2022].

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Website Citation: MyBIS (2022). Malaysia Biodiversity Information System. Published on the Internet https://www.mybis.gov.my/, Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources, Malaysia Biodiversity Centre & Forest Research Institute Malaysia. [Retrieved 29 May 2022].