Native Plants
 

Casuarina equisetifolia

Ru
LC
Least Concern
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
2019
LC
Least Concern
Malaysia Plant Red List
Peninsular Malaysia 2021
LC
Least Concern
Peninsular Malaysia Plant Red List *
2010
* Assessed according to the IUCN Red List Categories & Criteria Version 3.1
QR Code
SSN 11147
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Taxonomy

  • Kingdom
  • Division
  • Class
  • Order
  • Family
  • Genus
  • Species
    equisetifolia L., G.Forst. & J.R.Forst.
  • Vernacular Name
  • Residential
    Native
The taxanomic status is pending for approval

Description

Casuarina equisetifolia is a small to a very big tree, which belongs to the family Casuarinaceae. It is commonly known as ru in Malay. It is measured around 5-70 m tall, 27-200 cm diameter, with buttress up to 76 cm high. The bark is greyish brown to grey, sometimes pale red or black, finely scaly-fissured to irregularly coarsely scaly-fissured.  The sapwood is yellowish to yellow and hard. There are around 6-8 scale leaves per node, broadest at the hairy base. The male inflorescences are simple elongated spikes, measured up to 9 cm long, while the female inflorescences are ellipsoid, measured up to 6 mm long and 4 mm diameter. The fruit or more commonly known as samaroid nut is broadly elliptic, transparent, pale yellow-brown, and measured around 3.5 cm long.

The genus Casuarina derived its name from a Latin word, casuarinus meaning the green twigs resembling feathers of the cassowary. Meanwhile, the species epithet derived its name from two Latin words, Equisetum meaning the horsetails, and folius meaning leaf, both words referring the foliage resembling Equisetum.

This tree is widely spread from Myanmar and Vietnam, throughout Malesia to Australia, and thence to Melanesia, and Polynesia. It occurs naturally along tropical and subtropical sandy coastlines and acts as a windbreak for coastal resorts (Nor-Ezzawanis, 2010).

 

Habitats

No Description Suitability Seasonality
1
Vegetation → Coastal Vegetation
Unknown Unknown
References : http://www.iucnredlist.org/technical-documents/classification-schemes/habitats-classification-scheme-ver3

Assessment

Year Published Assessment Red List Category Version
2021 Malaysia Plant Red List
Least Concern (LC)
Peninsular Malaysia
N/A
2019 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Least Concern (LC)
N/A
2010 Peninsular Malaysia Plant Red List
Least Concern (LC)
N/A

Structure

Flower (Female)
Color
 
Pink
 
Red

Location

by State Location
  • Johore 4
  • Kedah 1
  • Pahang 2
  • Penang 1
  • Perak 1
  • Sarawak 1
  • Terengganu 2
  • Federal Territories of Putrajaya 1
Based on publications, specimens, and images

Biodiversity Experts

Profile
Ahmad Aldrie Amir (Dr.)
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM)
  • Vascular
  • Biodiversity
  • Climate Change
  • Conservation
  • Ecosystems
  • Environment
  • Evolution
  • Forest
  • History
  • Law and Policy
  • Management
  • Marine & Coastal
  • Protected Areas
  • Science
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
  • W
Anisah Lee Abdullah (Assoc. Prof. Dr.)
Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM)
  • Coral Reefs
  • Vascular
  • Biodiversity
  • Climate Change
  • Conservation
  • Ecosystems
  • Environment
  • Geoinformatics
  • Management
  • Marine & Coastal
  • Protected Areas
  • Science
  • Technology
  • Water
  • PM
  • SBH
Asyraf Mansor (Dr.)
Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM)
  • Palms
  • Vascular (Ecology)
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Ecosystems
  • Environment
  • Evolution
  • Forest
  • PM
Chan Yoke Mui (Ms.)
Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM)
  • Palms (Ecology)
  • Vascular (Ecology)
  • Conservation
  • Biodiversity
  • Forest
  • Genetics
  • PM
Chong Ju Lian (Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT)
  • Mammals (Ecology)
  • Vascular (Ecology)
  • Invasive Alien Species
  • Protected Areas
  • Digital Sequence Information (DSI)
  • Marine & Coastal
  • Climate Change
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
  • W
Kartini Binti Saibeh (Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS)
  • Vascular
  • Agriculture
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • SBH
Mohamad Azani Alias (Assoc. Prof. Dr.)
Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM)
  • Vascular (Taxonomy)
  • Vascular
  • Vascular
  • Amphibians
  • Amphibians
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Climate Change
  • Protected Areas
  • Forest
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
Nazahatul Anis Amaludin (Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Kelantan (UMK)
  • Vascular (Ecology)
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • PM
Nor Ezzawanis Abdullah Thani (Mrs.)
Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM)
  • Vascular (Taxonomy)
  • Digital Sequence Information (DSI)
  • PM
Nur Kyariatul Syafinie Abdul Majid (Ms.)
Universiti Malaysia Kelantan (UMK)
  • Vascular (Ecology)
  • Biodiversity
  • Climate Change
  • Conservation
  • Forest
  • Protected Areas
  • PM
Nur Supardi Md Noor (Dr.)
Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM)
  • Palms
  • Vascular
  • Biodiversity
  • Climate Change
  • Conservation
  • Ecosystems
  • Environment
  • Forest
  • Management
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
  • W
Rusea Go (Prof. Dr.)
Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM)
  • Orchids (Taxonomy)
  • Vascular (Taxonomy)
  • Vascular (Ecology)
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Environment
  • Forest
  • Management
  • Protected Areas
  • Climate Change
  • Invasive Alien Species
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
Tam Sheh May (Dr.)
Taylor's University
  • Orchids
  • Vascular
  • Biodiversity
  • Data Analysis
  • Evolution
  • Genetics
  • Molecular
  • PM
Tan Swee Lian (Dr.)
Academy of Sciences Malaysia (ASM)
  • Vascular (Ecology)
  • Agriculture
  • Biodiversity
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
Yong Kien Thai (Dr.)
University of Malaya (UM)
  • Moss
  • Vascular (Taxonomy)
  • Ferns (Taxonomy)
  • Protected Areas
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Evolution
  • Taxonomy
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
PM - Peninsular Malaysia; SBH - Sabah; SWK - Sarawak; SEA - Southeast Asia; W - World;

References

Article
  1. Ang, L.H. (1994). Problems and Prospects of Afforestation on Sandy Tin Tailings in Peninsular Malaysia. 7 (1): pp. 87-105
  2. Binu, N.K., Ashokan, P.K. & Balasundaran, M. (2015). Influence of Different Abbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Shade on Growth of Sandal (Santalum album) Seedlings. Journal of Tropical Forest Science 27 (2): pp. 158-165
  3. Senterre, B., Chew, M.Y. & Chung, R.C.K. (2015). Flora and vegetation of Pulau Babi Tengah, Johor, Peninsular Malaysia. Check List: The Journal of Biodiversity Data 11 (4): pp. 1-15
  4. Latiff, A., Faridah-Hanum, I., Zainudin Ibrahim, A., Goh, M.W.K., Loo, A.H.B. & Tan, H.T.W. (1999). On the Vegetation and Flora of Pulau Tioman, Peninsular Malaysia. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Supplements (6): pp. 11-72
  5. Otuba, M. & Johansson, K.E. (2016). Understorey Plant Diversity under Seven Tropical and Subtropical Plantation Species. Journal of Tropical Forest Science 28 (2): pp. 107-111
  6. Ye, G.F., Zhang, S.J., Zhang, L.H., Lin, Y.M., Wei, S.D., Liao, M.M. & Lin, G.H. (2012). Age-Related Changes in Nutrient Resorption Patterns and Tannin Concentration of Casuarina equisetifolia Plantations. Journal of Tropical Forest Science 24 (4): pp. 546-556
  7. Uma, M., Saravanan, T.S. & Rajendran, K. (2014). Growth, Litterfall and Litter Decomposition of Casuarina equisetifolia in A Semiarid Zone. Journal of Tropical Forest Science 26 (1): pp. 125-133
Book
  1. Island Life: A Natural History of Pulau Tengah, Johor, Malaysia, 2018. WS Lifestyle, Singapore. pp. 163.
  2. Laporan kajian penilaian outcome program penanaman pokok bakau dan spesies-spesies yang sesuai di pesisiran pantai negara, 2014. Kementerian Sumber Asli Dan Alam Sekitar, Putrajaya, Malaysia. pp. 218. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  3. Mangrove Guidebook for Malaysia, 2015. Wetlands International, Malaysia. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  4. Pelan Pengurusan Hidupan Liar Putrajaya, 1998. PERHILITAN & Perbadanan Putrajaya, Malaysia. pp. 100.
  5. Penanaman Dan Pemuliharaan Hutan Bakau Dan Pesisiran Pantai : Panduan Untuk Komuniti, 2009. Wetlands International-Malaysia, Institut Penyelidikan Perhutanan Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 70.
  6. Kiew, R., Chung, R.C.K., Saw, L.G., Soepadmo, E. & Boyce, P.C. (2010). Flora of Peninsular Malaysia, Series II: Seed Plants, Volume 1. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Malaysia. pp. 329.
  7. Phang, S.M., Affendi, Y.A., Ooi, J.L.S. & Haji, A.J.M. (2008). Natural History of The Pulau Tioman Group of Islands. Institute of Ocean and Earth Sciences (IOES), University of Malaya, Malaysia. pp. 292.
  8. Yong, W.S.Y., Chua, L.S.L., Lau, K.H., Siti-Nur Fatinah, K., Cheah, Y.H., Yao, T.L., Rafidah, A.R., Lim, C.L., Syahida-Emiza, S., Ummul Nazrah, A.R., Nor-Ezzawanis, A.T., Chew, M.Y., Siti Munirah, M.Y., Julius, A., Phoon, S.N., Sam, Y.Y., Nadiah, I., Ong, P.T., Sarah Nabila, R., Suhaida, M., Muhammad-Alif Azyraf, A., Siti Eryani, S., Yap, J.W., Jutta, M., Azeman, S., Salleh, N., Kiew, R. & Chung, R.C.K. (2021). Malaysia Red List: Plants of Peninsular Malaysia, Volume 1, Issue/No. 2. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Malaysia. pp. 753.
  9. Abdul Rahman, A.R., Koh, H.L., Muhamad, A., Wan Yusof, W.K. & Latiff, A. (2011). Hutan Simpan Melaka: Pengurusan Hutan, Persekitaran Fizikal, Kepelbagaian Biologi dan Socio-ekonomi. Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 315.
  10. Abd. Latif, M., Awang, M.R., Mohti, A., Zawiah, N., Nordahlia, A.S., Norain, M.A & Liza, I (2020). Flora Mercu Tanda Negeri-negeri Di Malaysia. Institut Penyelidikan Perhutanan Malaysia.
  11. Ong, H.C. (2004). Tumbuhan Liar: Khasiat & Kegunaan Lain. Utusan Publications & Distribution Sdn. Bhd., Malaysia. pp. 241.
  12. Boo, C.M., Omar-Hor, K. & Ou-Yang, C.L. (2003). 1001 Garden Plants in Singapore. National Parks Board, Singapore. pp. 501.
  13. Soepadmo, E., Wong, K.M. & Saw, L.G. (1996). Tree Flora of Sabah and Sarawak, Volume 2. Sabah Forestry Department, Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Sarawak Forestry Department, Malaysia. pp. 443.
  14. Mohd Afendi, H., Marzalina, M., Tariq Mubarak, H. & Wan Tarmeze, W. A. (2013). Tumbuhan Pesisir Pantai: Fenologi dan Penyediaan Bahan Tanaman. Institut Penyelidikan Perhutanan Malaysia (FRIM). pp. 120.
Chapter in book
  1. Pemuliharaan dan Pengurusan Hidupan Liar. In Pelan Pengurusan Hidupan Liar Putrajaya. PERHILITAN & Perbadanan Putrajaya. pp. 53-90.
Magazine/Bulletin
  1. Durability of Timbers for Indoor Applications in Malaysia. Timber Technology Bulletin: Compilation of Timber Technology Bulletins 1995-2015 (57), 2016. Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Malaysia.
  2. Malaysian and Indonesian Timbers Equivalent Names. Timber Technology Bulletin: Compilation of Timber Technology Bulletins 1995-2015 (57), 2016. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Malaysia.
  3. FRIM in FOCUS (March 2019). Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Malaysia.
Newsletter
  1. Ida Suraini, A.S. & Nik Zanariah, N.M. (2008, March). FRIM in FOCUS. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM). Retrived November 18, 2015, from https://www.mybis.gov.my/art/144
  2. Ida Suraini, A.S. (2017, December). FRIM in Focus. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM). Retrived March 14, 2018, from https://www.mybis.gov.my/art/2074 — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  3. Veronica, P. (2004, September). FRIM in FOCUS. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM). Retrived November 24, 2015, from https://www.mybis.gov.my/art/155
Unpublish
  1. Checklist of Biodiversity of Setiu (2019)

Acknowledgements :- Mr. Ahmad Amir Firdaus Bin Mad Apandi, Ms. Aida Salihah Binti Abu Bakar, Ms. Ainul Aqilah Binti Mohd Nasir, Mrs. Aziemah Binti Kinan, Mr. Badrul Amin Bin Jaffar, Ms. Noorkhalilie Binti Che Abd Aziz, Ms. Norazah Binti Norddin, Ms. Nur Farahin Binti Mustafa, Mrs. Nur Hazwanie Binti Abd Halim, Ms. Nurfadzilah Bt Azmi, Ms. Nurfarhana Hizan Binti Hijas, Mr. Tan Kok Kiat & Mr. Yasser Mohamed Arifin

Citation :- Casuarina equisetifolia. Malaysia Biodiversity Information System (MyBIS). https://www.mybis.gov.my/sp/11147. Downloaded on 21 October 2021.

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