Native

Phrynoidis asper

River Toad
LC
Least Concern
IUCN Red List
ver 3.1, 2014
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Taxonomy

  • Kingdom
  • Phylum
  • Class
  • Order
  • Family
  • Genus
  • Species
    asper
  • Author
    (Gravenhorst, 1829)
  • Synonym
  • Common
    Asian Giant Toad (English), Barking Toad (English), Giant River Toad (English), Katak Puru Sungai (Malay), Kodok Hutan (Malay), Kodok Sungai (Malay), River Toad (English) & Rough Toad (English)
  • Residential
    Native

Gallery  

Adult
Juvenile
Juvenile
Adult

Description

River toad (Phrynoides asper) is a large toad with warty, dark brownish to blackish stout body. It has inconspicuous ‘x’ mark on the back between the round-to oval-shaped paratoid glands in young. This species is usually dark brown, gray or black in color, with black spotting ventrally. The tips of fingers of this species are rounded or swollen. Its eardrum is visible. The females have a snout-vent length of 95-215 mm, while the males have a snout-vent length of 70-100 mm. This toad can be found in primary forest and in freshwater wetland at all elevation. The altitude range of this species is from 0 m to 1000m a.s.l. This species is distributed in Thailand, Malaysia, Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia and Myanmar (Inger & Stuebing, 2005). 

Habits

  Habit
Terrestrial   —   An animal that lives on/near the ground or a plant that grows on/in/from land

Habitats

No Description Suitability Seasonality
1
Artificial - Terrestrial → Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest
Suitable Unknown
2
Forest → Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland Forest
Suitable Unknown
3
Forest → Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane Forest
Suitable Unknown
4
Wetlands → Permanent Rivers, Streams, Creeks [includes waterfalls]
Suitable Unknown
References : http://www.iucnredlist.org/technical-documents/classification-schemes/habitats-classification-scheme-ver3

Assessment

Location

by State Location
  • Johor 1
  • Kedah 5
  • Kelantan 1
  • Pahang 5
  • Terengganu 2
Based on publications, specimens, and images

Specimen

Collection Center Total
180

Biodiversity Experts

Profile
Amirrudin Bin Ahmad (Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT)
  • Amphibians
  • Dragonflies and Damselflies
  • Fishes
  • Reptiles
  • Biodiversity
  • Data Analysis
  • Digital Sequence Information (DSI)
  • Living Modified Organism (LMO)
  • Marine & Coastal
  • Protected Areas
  • Invasive Alien Species
  • PM
Awang Noor Abd. Ghani (Prof. Dr.)
Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM)
  • Amphibians (Ecology)
  • Biodiversity
  • Data Analysis
  • Economics
  • Ecosystems
  • Environment
  • Forest
  • PM
Kaviarasu Munian (Mr.)
Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM)
  • Reptiles (Ecology)
  • Amphibians (Ecology)
  • Fishes (Ecology)
  • PM
Lim Boo Liat (Dr.)
Academy of Sciences Malaysia (ASM)
  • Reptiles (Ecology)
  • Rodents (Ecology)
  • Amphibians (Ecology)
  • Biodiversity
  • Ecosystems
  • Invasive Alien Species
Mohamad Rosni Bin Othman (Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT)
  • Amphibians
  • Coral Reefs
  • Turtles
  • Amphibians
  • Law and Policy
  • Management
  • Marine & Coastal
  • PM
  • W
Mohd Abdul Muin Bin Md Akil (Mr.)
Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM)
  • Amphibians
  • Birds
  • Reptiles
  • Snakes
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Evolution
  • Genetics
  • Molecular
  • Protected Areas
  • Climate Change
  • Invasive Alien Species
Teo Eng Wah (Dr.)
University of Malaya (UM)
  • Reptiles
  • Amphibians
  • Invasive Alien Species
PM - Peninsular Malaysia; SBH - Sabah; SWK - Sarawak; SEA - Southeast Asia; W - World;

References

Article
  1. Norhayati, A., Farah, A.D., Chan, K.O., Mohd Abdul Muin, M.A. & Belabut, D. (2011). An Update Of Herpetofaunal Records From Bukit Fraser, Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia. Malaysian Applied Biology Journal 40 (2): pp. 9-17
  2. Lim, B.L., Noor Alif Wira, O., Chan, K.O., Daicus, B. & Norhayati, A. (2010). An Updated Checklist of the Herpetofauna of Pulau Singa Besar, Langkawi, Peninsular Malaysia. Malaysian Applied Biology Journal 39 (1): pp. 13-23
  3. Savage, A.E., Chan, K.O., Grismer, J.L., Quah, E.S.H., Mohd Abdul Muin, M.A., Norhayati, A., Lenker, M., Lee Grismer, L., Zamudio, K.R. & Shahrul Anuar, M.S. (2011). First Record of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis Infecting Four Frog Families from Peninsular Malaysia. International Association for Ecology and Health (EcoHealth) 8 (1): pp. 121-128
  4. Das, I., Jankowski, A., Makmor, M.I.B. & Haas, A. (2007). Species diversity, elevational distribution and reproductive modes in an amphibian community at the Matang Range, Sarawak (Borneo). Mitt. Hamb. Zoo. Mus. Inst. 104: pp. 141-174
  5. Shahriza, S. & Ibrahim, J. (2017). A Survey of the Amphibian Species of Sungai Bubu, Anak Kurau, Perak, Peninsular Malaysia. Russian Journal of Herpetology 24 (1): pp. 54-62
  6. Ibrahim, J., Wong, J., Mohd Fazlin, M.S., Fatan, H.Y., Siti Hadijah, Y. & Norhaslinda, S. (2011). Amphibian Asemblage of Bubu Permanent Forest Reserve, Perak, Peninsular Malaysia. Malaysian Applied Biology Journal 40 (1): pp. 1-6
  7. Ibrahim, J., Nur Hafizah, I., Nurul Dalilah, A. R., Choimmber, T. & Mohd Abdul Muin, M.A. (2012). Amphibian Biodiversity of Gunung Inas Forest Reserve, Kedah, Malaysia. Pertanika Journal of Tropical Agricultural Science 35 (2): pp. 249-256
  8. Ibrahim, J., Awang, Z., Shahriza, S., Shahrul Anuar, M.S., Ibrahim, N.H., Hurzaid, A., Rahim, N.D.A., Min, M.A. & Ismail, A. (2012). Checklist of the Herpetofauna of Bukit Perangin Forest Reserve, Kedah, Malaysia. Sains Malaysiana 41 (6): pp. 691-696
  9. Shahriza, S., Ibrahim, J., Shahrul Anuar, M.S. & Mohd Abdul Muin, M.A. (2012). Herpetofauna of Peta Area of Endau-Rompin National Park,Johor, Malaysia. Pertanika Journal of Tropical Agricultural Science 35 (3): pp. 553-567
  10. Lee Grismer, L., Chan, K.O., Grismer, J.L., Wood Jr., P.L. & Norhayati, A. (2010). A Checklist of the Herpetofauna of the Banjaran Bintang, Peninsular Malaysia. Russian Journal of Herpetology 17 (2): pp. 147-160
  11. Lee Grismer, L., Youmans, T.M., Wood Jr., P.L. & Grismer, J.L. (2006). Checklist Of The Herpetofauna Of The Seribuat Archipelago, West Malaysia With Comments On Biogeography, Natural History, and Adaptive Types. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 54 (1): pp. 157-180
  12. Lim, K.K.P. & Lim, L.J. (1999). The Terrestrial Herpetofauna of Pulau Tioman, Peninsular Malaysia. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Supplements (6): pp. 131-155
  13. Shahriza, S., Ibrahim, J., Rahim, N.D.A. & Mohd Abdul Muin, M.A. (2011). An Annotated Checklist of the Herpetofauna of Beris Valley, Kedah, Malaysia. Tropical Life Sciences Research (TSLR) 22 (1): pp. 13-25
  14. Munisamy, B., Ahmad Lotffi, M.A. & Abd Halim, M.F. (2014). Notes on Herpetofauna in Kuala Sungai Serloh, Krau Wildlife Reserve, Pahang, Malaysia. Journal of Wildlife and Parks 28: pp. 25-30
  15. Ibrahim, J., Shahrul Anuar, M.S., Norhayati, A., Nor, S.M., Shahriza, S., Nurul 'Ain, E., Nor Zalipah, M. & Rayan, D.M. (2006). An Annotated Checklist of Herpetofauna of Langkawi Island, Kedah, Malaysia. Malayan Nature Journal 58: pp. 1-15
  16. Sumarli, A.X., Lee Grismer, L., Mohd Abdul Muin, M.A., Quah, E.S.H. & Shahrul Anuar, M.S. (2015). First Report on the Amphibians and Reptiles of a Remote Mountain, Gunung Tebu in Northeastern Peninsular Malaysia. Check List: The Journal of Biodiversity Data 11 (4): pp. 1679
  17. Quah, E.S.H., Mohd Abdul Muin, M.A., Nur Amira, A.R., Fatim Syakirah, M., Shahrul Anuar, M.S. & Lee Grismer, L. (2013). Species Diversity of Herpetofauna of Bukit Panchor State Park, Penang, Peninsular Malaysia. Malayan Nature Journal 64 (4): pp. 193-211
  18. Shahriza, S. & Ibrahim, J. (2014). A Preliminary Checklist of Amphibians of Ulu Paip Recreational Forest, Kedah, Malaysia. Check List: Journal of Species Lists and Distribution 10 (2): pp. 253-259
  19. Shahriza, S., Ibrahim, J. & Shahrul Anuar, M.S. (2013). Amphibian of Tupah Recreational Forest, Merbok, Kedah, Malaysia. Malaysian Applied Biology Journal 42 (2): pp. 71-75
  20. Shahriza, S. & Ibrahim, J. (2012). The Amphibian Diversity of Bukit Jana, Taiping, Perak. Tropical Life Sciences Research (TSLR) 23 (2): pp. 49-57
  21. Mohd Abdul Muin, M.A., Quah, E.S.H., Shahrul Anuar, M.S., Azman, N.M., Shafie, N.J., Omar, M.Y., Rahmad, Z. & Asyraf, M. (2017). Annotated Checklist of Herpetofauna of Gunung Basor Forest Reserve, Pergau, Kelantan. : pp. 80-85
  22. Shahriza, S., Ibrahim, J. & Shahrul Anuar, M.S. (2011). The Amphibian Fauna of Lata Bukit Hijau, Kedah, Malaysia. Russian Journal of Herpetology 18 (3): pp. 221-227
  23. Nurulhuda, Z., Senawi, J., Musa, F.H., Belabut, D., Chan, K.O., Nor, S.M. & Norhayati, A. (2014). Species composition of Amphibians and Reptiles in Krau Wildlife Reserve, Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia. Check List: Journal of Species Lists and Distribution 10 (2): pp. 335-343 — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  24. Taylor, E.H. (1962). The Amphibian Fauna of Thailand. The University of Kansas Science Bulletin , Vol. 43 (8): pp. 265-599
  25. Moseley, M., Wyn, L.T. & Tshen, L.T. (2012). Fauna Reported from Batu Caves, Selangor, Malaysia: Annotated Checklist and Bibliography.. 39 (2): pp. 77-92
  26. Lee Grismer, L., Sukumaran, J., Grismer, J.L., Youmans, T.M., Wood Jr., P.L. & Johnson, R. (2004). Report on the Herpetofauna from the Temengor Forest Reserve, Perak, West Malaysia. Hamadryad 29 (1): pp. 15-32
Book
  1. Heritage of Kubang Badak: Guide to Discover Kubang Badak Biogeotrail, 2018. Pusat Penyelidikan Langkawi, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia & Lembaga Pembangunan Langkawi, Malaysia. pp. 62.
  2. Shaharuddin, M.I., Dahalan, H.T., Abdullah Sani, Shafie, Jalil, M.S., Faridah-Hanum, I. & Latiff, A. (2005). Taman Negeri Gunung Stong, Kelantan: Pengurusan, Persekitaran Fizikal, Biologi dan Sosio-ekonomi. Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 442.
  3. Phang, S.M., Affendi, Y.A., Ooi, J.L.S. & Haji, A.J.M. (2008). Natural History of The Pulau Tioman Group of Islands. Institute of Ocean and Earth Sciences (IOES), University of Malaya, Malaysia. pp. 292.
  4. Inger, R.F. & Stuebing, R.B. (2005). A Field Guide To The Frogs of Borneo, Second Edition. Natural History Publications (Borneo), Malaysia. pp. 133, 209.
  5. Lee Grismer, L. (2005). Amphibians and Reptiles of the Tioman Archipelago, Malaysia. Forestry Department Peninsular Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 215.
  6. Norhayati, A., Senawi, J. & Lim, B.L. (2005). A Pocket Guide: Amphibians of Ulu Muda Forest Reserve, Kedah. Forestry Department Peninsular Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 120.
  7. Norhayati, A., Senawi, J. & Lim, B.L. (2004). A Photographic Guide To Amphibians of Endau Rompin State Park, Pahang. Forestry Department Peninsular Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 59.
  8. Abdul Rahman, A.R., Mohd Nasir, A.H., Mohamed Zin, Y., Richard, A.M. & Latiff, A. (2013). Banjaran Bintang Gunung Inas, Kedah: Pengurusan Hutan, Persekitaran Fizikal dan Kepelbagaian Biologi. Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 245.
  9. Mohammad Khairi, A (2007). Taman Negara Pulau Pinang: Sinar Mutiara Belantara. Jabatan Perlindungan Hidupan Liar dan Taman Negara, Malaysia. pp. 112.
  10. Abdul Rahman, A.R., Mohd Nasir, A.H., Ahmad Fadzil, A.M., Richard, A.M. & Latiff, A. (2014). Hutan Gunung Besar Hantu, Negeri Sembilan: Pengurusan Hutan, Persekitaran Fizikal dan Kepelbagaian Biologi. Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 254.
  11. Abdul Rahman, A.R., Mohd Nasir, A.H., Azmi, N., Nor Hasliza, M.B. & Latiff, A. (2014). Hutan Simpan Gunung Tebu, Terengganu: Pengurusan Hutan, Persekitaran Fizikal dan Kepelbagaian Biologi. Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 343.
  12. Mohd. Paiz, K., Norhaidi, Y., Rosilan, S., Norhayati, A. & Latiff, A. (2016). Taman Rimba Kenong, Pahang: The Central Gem of Peninsular Malaysia. Jabatan Perhutanan Negeri Pahang, Malaysia. pp. 135.
  13. Suhaila, A.H. & Nik Ahmad Irwan Izzauddin, N. H. (2014). Biodiversity of Gunung Ledang Mountaineering The Nature. School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia and Johor National Parks Corporation, Malaysia. pp. 165.
  14. Razani, U., Koh, H.L., Nik Mohd. Shah, N.M., Damanhuri, A. & Latiff, A. (2010). Hutan Simpan Bintang Hijau, Perak: Pengurusan Hutan, Persekitaran Fizikal dan Kepelbagaian Biologi. Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 281.
  15. Nee, T. A. & Nordin, N. (2018). Compendium of Facts and Figures. 3rd Edition, Volume 3. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Malaysia. pp. 174.
  16. Norhayati, A. (2017). Frogs and Toads of Malaysia: Malaysia Biodiversity Information System (MyBIS). Penerbit UKM, Bangi, Malaysia. pp. 101. — [ eBook (EPUB) | Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  17. Praveena, B.K. & Maria Arlene, J.A.S. (2013). Compendium of Facts and Figures. 2nd Edition. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Malaysia. pp. 161.
  18. Sitprija, V. & Suteparuk, S. (2012). Clinical Physiology of Animal Toxins: An Overview. Queen Saovabha Memorial Institute, The Thai Red Cross Society, Thailand. pp. 119.

Acknowledgements :- Mr. Abdul Razak Mohd Nor Rasid, Mr. Ahmad Hafizuddin Bin Rohim@rahim, Ms. Aida Salihah Binti Abu Bakar, Ms. Ajla Rafidah Baharom, Ms. Aziemah Binti Kinan, Mrs. Azuhaidah Binti Alias, Mrs. Juriah A/p Nibong, Mr. Kaviarasu Munian, Mr. Muhammad Izzuddin Bin Hazan, Ms. Nor Liyana Binti Hassan, Ms. Norayuni Binti Ramlee, Prof. Dr. Norhayati Binti Ahmad, Ms. Nur Hazwanie Binti Abd Halim, Ms. Nurfarhana Hizan Binti Hijas, Mr. Tan Kok Kiat, Mrs. Wan Roniza Binti Ismil & Mr. Yasser Mohamed Arifin

Citation :- Phrynoidis asper. Malaysia Biodiversity Information System (MyBIS). https://www.mybis.gov.my/sp/19465. Downloaded on 18 April 2019.

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