Native Animals

Galeopterus variegatus

Sunda Flying Lemur
LC
Least Concern
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
ver 3.1, 2008
QR Code
SSN 48008
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Taxonomy

  • Kingdom
  • Phylum
  • Class
  • Order
  • Family
  • Genus
  • Species
    variegatus (Audebert, 1799)
  • Synonym
  • Common Name
  • Residential
    Native
The taxonomic status is pending for approval

Description

The Sunda flying lemur or Sunda colugo (Kubong) is one of the species from the family Cynocephalidae (Colugos). This species usually has grey fur with extensive black-and-white markings, but some individuals have tinged reddish-brown or reddish-brown fur with light buff or orange markings (Francis, 2019). The fur colour blends in with the tree trunks and environment, making it exceptionally well camouflaged to stay hidden from predators such as Changeable hawk-eagle (Lim, 2007; Dzulhelmi, 2013). The adult Sunda colugo has about 33-42 cm head-body length and weighed around 0.925-1.7 kg (Francis, 2019). It has large eyes with excellent night vision, small ears and a pointed snout. Their legs are relatively long and equipped with long, sharp claws on toes that help them grip the tree trunks or branches.

Generally, the Sunda colugo can be found throughout Southeast Asia, ranging from southern Myanmar, southern Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Bali and many smaller Indonesian islands (Corbet & Hill, 1992; Ruggeri & Etterson, 1998; Stafford, 2005; Francis, 2019). It can be found in primary and secondary forests from lowland to upland forests, mountainous areas, mangroves forest, peat swamp forest, tree plantations, orchards and gardens (Lim, 1967; Hill, 1993; Yasuma & Andau, 2000; Feldhamer et al., 2003; Ketol et al., 2006; Abdullah et al., 2010; Francis, 2019). Colugo populations from Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo and Sumatra are genetically and morphologically different (Janecka et al., 2008; Mason et al., 2016).

Habitats

No Description Suitability Seasonality
1
Forest → Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Forest Vegetation Above High Tide Level
Suitable Unknown
2
Forest → Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland Forest
Suitable Unknown
References : http://www.iucnredlist.org/technical-documents/classification-schemes/habitats-classification-scheme-ver3

Assessment

Year Published Assessment Red List Category Version
2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Least Concern (LC)
3.1
1996 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Least Concern (LC)
N/A

Location

by State Location
  • Johore 1
  • Kedah 2
  • Kelantan 1
  • Negeri Sembilan 1
  • Pahang 2
  • Penang 2
  • Perak 2
  • Sarawak 1
  • Terengganu 1
by Protected Areas Location
  • National/State Park 1
Based on publications, specimens, and images

Biodiversity Experts

Profile
Amy Then Yee Hui (Dr.)
University of Malaya (UM)
  • Fishes (Ecology)
  • Seahorses (Ecology)
  • Mammals (Ecology)
  • Protected Areas
  • Marine & Coastal
  • PM
  • W
Chong Ju Lian (Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT)
  • Mammals (Ecology)
  • Vascular (Ecology)
  • Invasive Alien Species
  • Protected Areas
  • Digital Sequence Information (DSI)
  • Marine & Coastal
  • Climate Change
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
  • W
David Magintan (Mr.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
  • Mammals
  • Elephants
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Environment
  • Protected Areas
  • PM
Faisal Ali Anwarali Khan (Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS)
  • Mammals
  • Bats
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Data Analysis
  • Evolution
  • Forest
  • Molecular
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
Farah Shafawati Mohd Taib (Dr.)
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM)
  • Birds
  • Mammals
  • Rodents
  • Treeshrews
  • Squirrels
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Data Analysis
  • Ecosystems
  • Taxonomy
  • PM
Jayaraj Vijaya Kumaran (Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Kelantan (UMK)
  • Mammals
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Genetics
  • Digital Sequence Information (DSI)
Jeffrine Rovie Ryan Japning (Mr.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
  • Monkeys
  • Fishes
  • Mammals
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Data Analysis
  • Evolution
  • Genetics
  • Molecular
  • Protected Areas
  • Science
  • Technology
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
Kayal Vizi Karuppannan (Mrs.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
  • Elephants
  • Fishes
  • Mammals
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Evolution
  • Genetics
  • Molecular
  • Protected Areas
  • Digital Sequence Information (DSI)
  • PM
Midhat Nabil Ahmad Salimi (Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP)
  • Mammals
  • Biodiversity
  • Climate Change
  • Data Analysis
  • Ecosystems
  • Education
  • Environment
  • Genetics
  • History
  • Management
  • Medical
  • Molecular
  • Science
  • Technology
  • Water
  • Digital Sequence Information (DSI)
  • Living Modified Organism (LMO)
  • Synthetic Biology
  • Protected Areas
  • Marine & Coastal
  • Invasive Alien Species
  • PM
  • SEA
  • W
Mohammad Shahfiz Azman (Mr.)
Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM)
  • Amphibians
  • Mammals
  • Birds
  • Amphibians
  • Reptiles
  • Awareness
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Ecosystems
  • Environment
  • Forest
  • Landscape
  • Law and Policy
  • Management
  • Protected Areas
  • Science
  • Systematics
  • Invasive Alien Species
  • Like-Minded Megadiverse Countries (LMMC)
  • National Policy on Biological Diversity
  • Policy
  • Research and Development (R&D)
  • Zoonotic
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
Mohd Tajuddin Abdullah (Prof. Dato' Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT)
  • Mammals
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Ecosystems
  • Evolution
  • Genetics
  • Protected Areas
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
Nasharuddin Bin Othman (Mr.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
  • Mammals (Ecology)
  • Conservation
  • Management
  • Protected Areas
  • PM
Rahimatsah Amat (Dr.)
Sabah Environmental Trust (SET)
  • Mammals (Ecology)
  • Environment
  • Management
  • Protected Areas
  • SEA
Rahmat Topani (Mr.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
  • Mammals (Ecology)
  • Conservation
  • Protected Areas
  • Marine & Coastal
  • PM
Rosli Hashim (Prof. Dr.)
University of Malaya (UM)
  • Birds (Ecology)
  • Mammals (Ecology)
  • Spiders
  • Insects
  • Biodiversity
  • Protected Areas
  • PM
  • W
Rosli Ramli (Assoc. Prof. Dr.)
University of Malaya (UM)
  • Mammals (Ecology)
  • Birds
  • Biodiversity
  • Digital Sequence Information (DSI)
  • Protected Areas
  • Marine & Coastal
  • PM
  • W
Saifullah A. Jaaman @ Sharman (Assoc. Prof.)
Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT)
  • Mammals
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Marine & Coastal
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
Tan Cheng Cheng (Ms.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
  • Mammals (Ecology)
  • Protected Areas
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
Tan Poai Ean (Ms.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
  • Bats
  • Mammals
  • Rodents
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Ecosystems
  • Management
  • PM
PM - Peninsular Malaysia; SBH - Sabah; SWK - Sarawak; SEA - Southeast Asia; W - World;

References

Article
  1. Aziz, S.A., Clements, G.R., McConkey, K.R., Sritongchuay, T., Pathil, S., Abu Yazid, M.N.H., Campos-Arceiz, A., Forget, P.M. & Bumrungsri, S. (2017). Pollination by the locally endangered island flying fox (Pteropus hypomelanus) enhances fruit production of the economically important durian (Durio zibethinus). Ecology and Evolution, 1-15. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ece3.3213/full
  2. Dzulhelmi, M.N. & Abdullah, M.T. (2010). Distribution of the Sunda Colugo (Galeopterus variegatus) in Malaysia (Peninsular, Sabah, Sarawak). Tropical Life Sciences Research. 21 (2), 69-83. http://www.tlsr.usm.my/tlsr21022010/21022010_06.pdf
  3. Dzulhelmi, M.N. & Abdullah, M.T. (2009). Foraging ecology of the Sunda colugo (Galeopterus variegatus) in Bako National Park, Sarawak, Malaysia. Malayan Nature Journal. 61 (4), 285–294
  4. Aihara, Y., Hosaka, T., Yasuda, M., Hashim, M. & Numata, S. (2016). Mammalian Wildlife Tourism in South-East Asian Tropical Rainforests: The Case of Endau Rompin National Park, Malaysia. Journal of Tropical Forest Science 28 (2), 167-181
  5. Hron, T., Fabryova, H., Paces, J. & Elleder, D. (2014). Endogenous lentivirus in Malayan colugo (Galeopterus variegatus), a close relative of primates. Retrovirology. 11 (1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12977-014-0084-x
  6. Janecka, J.E., Helgen, K.M., Lim, N.T.L., Baba, M., Izawa, M., Boeadi & Murphy, W. (2008). Evidence for multiple species of Sunda colugo. Current Biology. 18 (21), R1001-R1002. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2008.09.005
  7. Ketol, B., Tedong, S. & Abdullah, M.T. (2006). Short Notes: Distribution of the rare flying lemur in Kota Samarahan and Kuching area, Sarawak. The Sarawak Museum Journal. 62 (83), 237-241
  8. Mason, V.C., Li, G., Minx, P., Schmitz, J., Churakov, G., Doronina, L., Melin, A.D., Dominy, N.J., Lim, N.T.L., Springer, M.S., Wilson, R.K., Warren, W.C., Helgen, K.M. & Murphy, W.J. (2016). Genomic analysis reveals hidden biodiversity within colugos, the sister group to primates. Science Advances. 2 (8), 1-15. e1600633. https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.1600633
  9. Miard, P., Lim, L.S., Nur Izzati, A., Nurul Ain, E. & Ruppert, N. (2018). Ultrasound use by Sunda colugos offers new insights into the communication of these cryptic mammals. Bioacoustics. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09524622.2018.1463294 — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  10. Ramli, R. & Hashim, R. (2009). Diversity of Small Mammals Inhabiting Disturbed Forest: A Case Study on Kenaboi Forest Reserve, Jelebu, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. Malaysian Journal of Science 28 (4), 481-490
  11. Dzulhelmi, M.N. & Suriyanti, S.N.P. (2013). Behaviours of the Sunda Colugo Galeopterus variegatus in Bako National Park, Sarawak, Malaysia. Journal of Science and Technology in the Tropics 9 (2), 85-89. http://www.costam.org.my
  12. Ruggeri, N. & Etterson, M. (1998). The first record of Colugo (Cynocephalus variegatus) from the Lao P. D. R. Mammalia. 62 (3), 450-451
  13. Shahfiz, M.A., Shahrul Anuar, M.S., Kaviarasu, M., Fauzi, M.Z. & Rizal, M.R. (2013). Preliminary Checklist of Mammals at Sungai Enam in Temengor Forest Reserve, Perak, Peninsular Malaysia. , 197-214
  14. Syakirah, S., Prentice, C., Lopez, A., Azmin, M. R. & Yusof, A. M. (2000). A small- mammal survey at Tasek Bera, Pahang, Malaysia's first Ramsar Site. Malayan Nature Journal 54 (1), 31-41
Book
  1. A visitor's guidebook to Endau-Rompin (Johor) National Park, 2019. Johor National Parks Corporation and UNDP Malaysia. pp. 108.
  2. Abdul Rahman, A.R., Mohd Nasir, A.H., Mohamed Zin, Y., Richard, A.M. & Latiff, A. (2013). Banjaran Bintang Gunung Inas, Kedah: Pengurusan Hutan, Persekitaran Fizikal dan Kepelbagaian Biologi. Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 245.
  3. Abdul Rahman, A.R., Mohd Nasir, A.H., Ahmad Fadzil, A.M., Richard, A.M. & Latiff, A. (2014). Hutan Gunung Besar Hantu, Negeri Sembilan: Pengurusan Hutan, Persekitaran Fizikal dan Kepelbagaian Biologi. Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 254.
  4. Abdul Rahman, A.R., Yahaya, M., Mohd Nasir, A.H., Muhamad, A. & Latiff, A. (2012). Hutan Simpan Gunung Belumut, Johor: Pengurusan Hutan, Persekitaran Fizikal dan Kepelbagaian Biologi. Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 271.
  5. Abdul Rahman, A.R., Koh, H.L., Muhamad, A., Wan Yusof, W.K. & Latiff, A. (2011). Hutan Simpan Melaka: Pengurusan Hutan, Persekitaran Fizikal, Kepelbagaian Biologi dan Socio-ekonomi. Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 315.
  6. Abdullah, M.T., Wong, S.F. & Ketol, B. (2010). Catalogue of mammals in the UNIMAS Zoological Museum. Kota Samarahan: Universiti Malaysia Sarawak Publication.
  7. Burnie, D. & Wilson, D.E. (2001). Animal: The Definitive Visual Guide to the World's Wildlife. New York, New York: DK Publishing, Inc.
  8. Dzulhelmi, M.N. (2013). Natural History of the Colugo. Malaysia: Penerbit Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.
  9. Feldhamer, G.A., Drickamer, L.C., Vessey, S.H. & Merritt, J.F. (2003). Mammalogy: Adaptation, diversity and ecology, 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Companies Inc.
  10. Hazebroek, H.P., Adlin, T.Z. & Sinun, W. (2011). Danum Valley: The Rain Forest. Natural History Publications (Borneo), Malaysia. pp. 615.
  11. Hill, J.E. (1993). Flying lemurs (in Encyclopedia of Animals). Singapore: Weldon Owen Pty Limited.
  12. Khan, M.M. (1992). Mamalia Semenanjung Malaysia. Jabatan Perlindungan Hidupan Liar dan Taman Negara (PERHILITAN), Malaysia. pp. 182.
  13. Lim, N.T.L. (2007). Colugo: The Flying Lemur of South-East Asia. Draco Publishing, National University of Singapore, Singapore. pp. 80.
  14. Mohammad, M.S., Zainon, K & Zulfadhlan, A.K. (2013). Proceedings of The 2nd Temengor Scientific Expedition 2012. Pulau Banding Foundation, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia. pp. 388.
  15. Mohammad Khairi, A (2007). Taman Negara Pulau Pinang: Sinar Mutiara Belantara. Jabatan Perlindungan Hidupan Liar dan Taman Negara, Malaysia. pp. 112.
  16. Nee, T. A. & Norhayati, N. (2018). Compendium of Facts and Figures. 3rd Edition, Volume 3. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Malaysia. pp. 174.
  17. Panyutina, A.A., Korzun, L.P. & Kuznetsov, A.N. (2015). Flight of Mammals: From Terrestrial Limbs to Wings. Springer International.
  18. Payne, J. & Francis, C.M. (1985). A Field Guide to the Mammals of Borneo. The Sabah Society, Malaysia. pp. 326.
  19. Phillipps, Q. & Phillipps, K. (2016). Phillipps’ Guide to the Mammals of Borneo and their Ecology: Sabah, Sarawak, Brunei, and Kalimantan. Natural History Publications (Borneo), Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia. pp. 400.
  20. Praveena, B.K. & Maria Arlene, J.A.S. (2013). Compendium of Facts and Figures. 2nd Edition. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Malaysia. pp. 161.
  21. Ratnam, L. (1995). Windows on The Forest: Glimpses of FRIM for the Nature Loving Visitor, Issue/No. 1. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Malaysia. pp. 143.
  22. Geoforest Parks: Hanging Gardens of Langkawi, 2005. Forestry Department Peninsular Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 117.
  23. Shaharuddin, M.I., Mokhtar, M.I., Wan Yusof, W.A., M. Rahim, R. & Latiff, A. (2004). Taman Negeri Endau Rompin : Pengurusan, Persekitaran Fizikal dan Biologi. Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 378.
  24. Shaharuddin, M.I., Dahalan, H.T., Abdullah Sani, Shafie, Jalil, M.S., Faridah-Hanum, I. & Latiff, A. (2005). Taman Negeri Gunung Stong, Kelantan: Pengurusan, Persekitaran Fizikal, Biologi dan Sosio-ekonomi. Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 442.
  25. T. Marina, T. Ibrahim & Shamsul, K. (2009). Kepelbagaian Biologi Flora, Fauna dan Nilai Ekonomi Hutan Simpan Tranum, Pahang. Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 140.
  26. Tan, P.E., Norazlinda, A.R., Nosrat, R. & Saaban, S. (2015). Field Guides - Identification Key for Non-Volant Terrestrial Mammals of Peninsular Malaysia. Department of Wildlife and National Parks (DWNP) Peninsular Malaysia. pp. 56.
  27. Yasuma, S. & Andau, M. (2000). Mammals of Sabah Part 2: Habitat and ecology. Sabah, Malaysia: Sabah Wildlife Department, Malaysia.
Chapter in book
  1. Davison, G.W.H. & Akbar, Z. (2007). The Status of Mammalian Biodiversity in Malaysia. In Chua, L.S.L., Kirton, L.G. & Saw, L.G. (Eds.), Status of Biological Diversity in Malaysia and Threat Assessment of Plant Species in Malaysia: Proceedings of the Seminar and Workshop, 28-30 June 2005. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM). pp. 3-27.
  2. Lim, B.L., Ratnam, L. & Hussien, N. A. (2003). Small Mammals Diversity in Pasoh Forest Reserve, Negeri Sembilan, Peninsular Malaysia. In Okuda, T., Manokaran, N. & Ashton, P.S. (Eds.), Pasoh: Ecology of a Lowland Rain Forest in Southeast Asia. Springer Tokyo. pp. 403-411.
  3. Stafford, B.J. (2005). Order Dermoptera. In Wilson, D.E. & Reeder, D.M. (Eds.), Mammals species of the world, taxonomic and geographic reference, 3rd ed. Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.
Journal
  1. Malayan Nature Journal, Volume 73, Issue 3, p. 419, 2021

Acknowledgements :- Mr. Ahmad Amir Firdaus Bin Mad Apandi, Mr. Ahmad Hafizuddin Bin Rohim@rahim, Ms. Aida Salihah Binti Abu Bakar, Ms. Ainul Aqilah Binti Mohd Nasir, Mrs. Aziemah Binti Kinan, Mr. Badrul Amin Bin Jaffar, Ms. Fatin Qurratul 'ain Binti Saberam, Mrs. Hakimah Binti Jaafar, Ms. Noor Amira Aini Binti Noor Anwar, Ms. Norayuni Binti Ramlee, Mrs. Nur Hazwanie Binti Abd Halim, Ms. Nurfarhana Hizan Binti Hijas, Ms. Siti Zubaidah Binti Abdul Latif, Mr. Tan Kok Kiat & Mr. Yasser Mohamed Arifin

Photo credit :- Fairuz Nur Adilah Binti Mohamad Nor, Norhayati Binti Ahmad, Siti Fariezza Bt Khairi Thaw & Tan Sin Hoong

Species Citation :- Galeopterus variegatus. Malaysia Biodiversity Information System (MyBIS). Accessed via https://www.mybis.gov.my/sp/48008. [Retrieved 16 August 2022].

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