Native Animals

Elephas maximus

Asian Elephant
EN
Endangered
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
ver 3.1, 2020
VU
Vulnerable
Red List of Mammals for Peninsular Malaysia
Peninsular Malaysia ver 3.1, 2009
QR Code
SSN 19993
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Taxonomy

The taxonomic status is pending for approval

Description

The elephant is the largest terrestrial mammal with distinctive long trunk found in Asia and Africa. Elephas maximus, commonly known as Asian Elephant has a smaller body compared to the African elephant and can be distinguished by its smaller ears, more rounded back and the presence of two dome-like structures on the top of the head.

Frequently, the elephant takes dust bath for protection from diseases and parasites, and then sprayed water and covered their body with mud to keep them cool. The flapping of the ears also serves as a thermoregulatory function in hot weather.

Asian elephants nowadays are facing habitat loss and fragmentation. Expanding of human population and logging activities would also shrink the habitat of elephant and consequently contribute to an increase in human-elephant conflict (Francis, 2008).

Through an inventory and monitoring program done by Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN) from the year 2000 to 2012 and collaboration with Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) Malaysia on dung-count surveys, it is estimated that the population of the Asian elephant is at 1,220 – 1,680 individuals in the Peninsular Malaysia.

Assessment

Year Published Assessment Red List Category Version
2020 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Endangered (EN)
3.1
2009 Red List of Mammals for Peninsular Malaysia
Vulnerable (VU)
Peninsular Malaysia
3.1
2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Endangered (EN)
3.1
1996 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Endangered (EN)
N/A
1994 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Endangered (EN)
N/A
1990 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Endangered (EN)
N/A
1988 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Endangered (EN)
N/A
1986 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Endangered (EN)
N/A

Biodiversity Experts

Profile
Amy Then Yee Hui (Dr.)
University of Malaya (UM)
  • Fishes (Ecology)
  • Seahorses (Ecology)
  • Mammals (Ecology)
  • Protected Areas
  • Marine & Coastal
  • PM
  • W
Chong Ju Lian (Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT)
  • Mammals (Ecology)
  • Vascular (Ecology)
  • Invasive Alien Species
  • Protected Areas
  • Digital Sequence Information (DSI)
  • Marine & Coastal
  • Climate Change
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
  • W
David Magintan (Mr.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
  • Mammals
  • Elephants
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Environment
  • Protected Areas
  • PM
Faisal Ali Anwarali Khan (Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS)
  • Mammals
  • Bats
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Data Analysis
  • Evolution
  • Forest
  • Molecular
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
Farah Shafawati Mohd Taib (Dr.)
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM)
  • Birds
  • Mammals
  • Rodents
  • Treeshrews
  • Squirrels
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Data Analysis
  • Ecosystems
  • Taxonomy
  • PM
Jayaraj Vijaya Kumaran (Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Kelantan (UMK)
  • Mammals
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Genetics
  • Digital Sequence Information (DSI)
Jeffrine Rovie Ryan Japning (Mr.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
  • Monkeys
  • Fishes
  • Mammals
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Data Analysis
  • Evolution
  • Genetics
  • Molecular
  • Protected Areas
  • Science
  • Technology
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
Kayal Vizi Karuppannan (Mrs.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
  • Elephants
  • Fishes
  • Mammals
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Evolution
  • Genetics
  • Molecular
  • Protected Areas
  • Digital Sequence Information (DSI)
  • PM
Midhat Nabil Ahmad Salimi (Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP)
  • Mammals
  • Biodiversity
  • Climate Change
  • Data Analysis
  • Ecosystems
  • Education
  • Environment
  • Genetics
  • History
  • Management
  • Medical
  • Molecular
  • Science
  • Technology
  • Water
  • Digital Sequence Information (DSI)
  • Living Modified Organism (LMO)
  • Synthetic Biology
  • Protected Areas
  • Marine & Coastal
  • Invasive Alien Species
  • PM
  • SEA
  • W
Mohammad Shahfiz Azman (Mr.)
Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM)
  • Amphibians
  • Mammals
  • Birds
  • Awareness
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Ecosystems
  • Environment
  • Forest
  • Landscape
  • Law and Policy
  • Management
  • Protected Areas
  • Science
  • Systematics
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
Mohd Tajuddin Abdullah (Prof. Dato' Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT)
  • Mammals
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Ecosystems
  • Evolution
  • Genetics
  • Protected Areas
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
Nasharuddin Bin Othman (Mr.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
  • Mammals (Ecology)
  • Conservation
  • Management
  • Protected Areas
  • PM
Rahimatsah Amat (Dr.)
Sabah Environmental Trust (SET)
  • Mammals (Ecology)
  • Environment
  • Management
  • Protected Areas
  • SEA
Rahmat Topani (Mr.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
  • Mammals (Ecology)
  • Conservation
  • Protected Areas
  • Marine & Coastal
  • PM
Robert Francis Peters (Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS)
  • Ginger
  • Elephants (Ecology)
  • Protected Areas
  • Access and Benefit-sharing (ABS)
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Economics
  • Ecosystems
  • Education
  • Environment
  • History
  • Law and Policy
  • Tourism
  • Traditional Knowledge (TK)
  • SBH
Rosli Hashim (Prof. Dr.)
University of Malaya (UM)
  • Birds (Ecology)
  • Mammals (Ecology)
  • Spiders
  • Insects
  • Biodiversity
  • Protected Areas
  • PM
  • W
Rosli Ramli (Assoc. Prof. Dr.)
University of Malaya (UM)
  • Mammals (Ecology)
  • Birds
  • Biodiversity
  • Digital Sequence Information (DSI)
  • Protected Areas
  • Marine & Coastal
  • PM
  • W
Saifullah A. Jaaman @ Sharman (Assoc. Prof.)
Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT)
  • Mammals
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Marine & Coastal
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
Tan Cheng Cheng (Ms.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
  • Mammals (Ecology)
  • Protected Areas
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
Tan Poai Ean (Ms.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
  • Bats
  • Mammals
  • Rodents
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Ecosystems
  • Management
  • PM
PM - Peninsular Malaysia; SBH - Sabah; SWK - Sarawak; SEA - Southeast Asia; W - World;

References

Article
  1. Understanding and solving the South-East Asian snaring crisis. The Ecological Citizen 4 (2): pp. 129-141 — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  2. Azman, N.M., Abdul Latip, N.S., Shahrul Anuar, M.S., Mohd Abdul Muin, M.A., Shafie, N.J. & Khairuddin, N.L. (2011). Avian Diversity and Feeding Guilds in a Secondary Forest, an Oil Palm Plantation and a Paddy Field in Riparian Areas of the Kerian River Basin, Perak, Malaysia. Tropical Life Sciences Research (TSLR) 22 (2): pp. 45–64
  3. Saaban, S., Othman, N., Yasak, M.N., Burhanuddin, M.N., Zafir, A. & Campos-Arceiz, A. (2011). Current Status of Asian Elephants in Peninsular Malaysia. Gajah 35: pp. 67-75
  4. Shahfiz, M.A., Shahrul Anuar, M.S., Kaviarasu, M., Fauzi, M.Z. & Rizal, M.R. (2013). Preliminary Checklist of Mammals at Sungai Enam in Temengor Forest Reserve, Perak, Peninsular Malaysia. : pp. 197-214
  5. Gopakumar, B. & Motwani, B. (2013). Factors Restraining The Natural Regeneration of Reed Bamboo Ochlandra travancorica and O. wightii in Western Ghats, India. Journal of Tropical Forest Science 25 (2): pp. 250-258
  6. Aihara, Y., Hosaka, T., Yasuda, M., Hashim, M. & Numata, S. (2016). Mammalian Wildlife Tourism in South-East Asian Tropical Rainforests: The Case of Endau Rompin National Park, Malaysia. Journal of Tropical Forest Science 28 (2): pp. 167-181
  7. Cranbrook, E., Payne, J. & Leh, C.M.U. (2008). Origin of the elephants Elephas maximus L. of Borneo. Sarawak Mus. J. 63: pp. 1-25
  8. Magintan, D., Ilias, R., Ismail, A., Adrian, J., Rasdi, I. & Mohd. Sanusi, M. (2015). A Preliminary Observation of Mammals and Other Species Visiting Artificial Salt Licks in Peninsular Malaysia. Journal of Wildlife and Parks 30: pp. 59-74
  9. Zafir, A.W.A. & Magintan, D. (2016). Historical Review of Human-Elephant Conflict in Peninsular Malaysia. Journal of Wildlife and Parks 31: pp. 1-19
  10. Magintan, D., Mohamad Rufino, B.M., Cosmas, N. & Dennis, T.C.Y. (2009). Some evidences of Sumatran Rhinoceros presence in Temengor Forest Reserve, Perak. Journal of Wildlife and Parks 26: pp. 5-10
  11. Fernando, P., Vidya, T.N.C., Payne, J., Stuewe, M., Davison, G.W.H., Alfred, R., Andau, P., Edwin, B., Kilbourn, A. & Melnick, D.J. (2003). DNA analysis indicates that Asian elephants are native to Borneo and are therefore a high priority for conservation. PLoS Biology 1 (1): pp. e6
  12. Othman, N., Mohamed, M., Ahmad, A.H., Nathan, S.K.S.S., Pierson, H.T. & Goossens, B. (2008). A preliminary study on the morphometrics of the Bornean Elephant. Journal of Tropical Biology and Conservation (JTBC) 4 (1): pp. 109-113
  13. Shahriza, S., Ibrahim, J., Shahrul Anuar, M.S. & Mohd Abdul Muin, M.A. (2012). Herpetofauna of Peta Area of Endau-Rompin National Park,Johor, Malaysia. Pertanika Journal of Tropical Agricultural Science 35 (3): pp. 553-567
  14. Jambari, A., Sivananthan, T.E., Abdul Halim, H.R., Saharudin, M.H., Mohamed, K.A., Mohd, A., Seman, M.F., Samsuddin, S. & Mohd Azmi, I.S. (2015). A Camera Trap Assessment of Terrestrial Vertebrates in Taman Negara Kelantan and Terengganu, Malaysia. Journal of Wildlife and Parks 30: pp. 45-57
  15. Nakashima, Y., Lagan, P. & Kitayama, K. (2007). A Study of Fruit–Frugivore Interactions in Two Species of Durian (Durio, Bombacaceae) in Sabah, Malaysia. 40 (2): pp. 255–258
  16. Alfred, R., Ambu, L., Nathan, S.K.S.S. & Goossens, B. (2011). Current status of Asian elephants in Borneo. Gajah 35: pp. 29-35
  17. Chew, M.Y., Hymeir, K., Nosrat, R. & Shahfiz, M.A. (2014). Relation Between Grasses and Large Herbivores at The Ulu Muda Salt Licks, Peninsular Malaysia. Journal of Tropical Forest Science 26 (4): pp. 554-559
  18. Ong, L., McConkey, K.R., Solana-Mena, A. & Campos-Arceiz, A. (2019). Elephant frugivory and wild boar seed predation of Irvingia malayana, a large-fruited tree, in a rainforest of Peninsular Malaysia. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 67: pp. 160-170
Book
  1. A visitor's guidebook to Endau-Rompin (Johor) National Park, 2019. Johor National Parks Corporation and UNDP Malaysia. pp. 108.
  2. ASEAN Biodiversity Outlook 2, 2017. ASEAN Centre for Biodiversity, Philippines. pp. 220. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  3. Biodiversity in Plantation Landscapes, 2012. Wild Asia and the Malaysian Palm Oil Council, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. pp. 130. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  4. CITES Identification Guide for Ivory and Ivory Substitutes (4th Edition), 2020. World Wildlife Fund Inc., Washington DC, United States of America. pp. 108. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  5. Malaysian Naturalist, Volume 74, Issue/No. 4, 2021. Malaysian Nature Society, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. pp. 311.
  6. National Tiger Action Plan for Malaysia, 2008. Department of Wildlife and National Parks Peninsular Malaysia. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  7. Red List of Mammals for Peninsular Malaysia: Red List Mamalia Semenanjung Malaysia, 2010. Department of Wildlife and National Parks (DWNP), Peninsular Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 150. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  8. The Network of Protected Forests in Telupid, Sabah: Biodiversity & Conservation in the Heart of Borneo, 2014. Sabah Forestry Department, Sabah, Malaysia. pp. 155.
  9. USAID Wildlife Asia Counter Wildlife Trafficking Digest: Southeast Asia and China, Issue/No. 1, 2018. USAID Wildlife Asia, Bangkok, Thailand. pp. 39. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  10. USAID Wildlife Asia Counter Wildlife Trafficking Digest: Southeast Asia and China, Issue/No. 3, 2020. pp. 68. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  11. Beastall, C.A. & Chng, S.C.L. (2021). Identification of Commonly Traded Wildlife in Southeast Asia. TRAFFIC, Southeast Asia Regional Office, Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  12. Mohd Hizamri, M.Y, Grippin, A & Norhayati, A. (2021). Taman Negeri Rompin Pahang: A World of Wonders and Enchantments. Pahang State Forestry Department.
  13. Hazebroek, H.P., Adlin, T.Z. & Sinun, W. (2011). Danum Valley: The Rain Forest. Natural History Publications (Borneo), Malaysia. pp. 615.
  14. Khan, M.M. (1992). Mamalia Semenanjung Malaysia. Jabatan Perlindungan Hidupan Liar dan Taman Negara (PERHILITAN), Malaysia. pp. 182.
  15. Shaharuddin, M.I., Che, H.H., Mohd. Puat, Dahalan, Jalil, M.S., Norhaidi, Y. & Latiff, A. (2005). Hutan Simpan Ulu Muda, Kedah: Pengurusan, Persekitaran Fizikal Dan Biologi. Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 310.
  16. Abdul Rahman, A.R., Koh, H.L., Muhamad, A. & Latiff, A. (2011). Taman Negeri DiRaja Belum, Perak: Pengurusan Hutan, Persekitaran Fizikal, Kepelbagaian Biologi dan Socio-ekonomi. Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 332.
  17. Abd. Latif, M., Mohti, A., Musa, S. & Parlan, I. (2020). Malaysia's Tropical Rainforests - Splendour To Behold. Forest Research Institute Malaysia. pp. 212.
  18. Nik Mohd Maseri, Nik Mohamad (2009). Gunung Stong State Forest Park: A Guidebook. WWF-Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 24.
  19. Tan, P.E., Norazlinda, A.R., Nosrat, R. & Saaban, S. (2015). Field Guides - Identification Key for Non-Volant Terrestrial Mammals of Peninsular Malaysia. Department of Wildlife and National Parks (DWNP) Peninsular Malaysia. pp. 56.
  20. Payne, J. & Francis, C.M. (1985). A Field Guide to the Mammals of Borneo. The Sabah Society, Malaysia. pp. 326.
  21. Shaharuddin, M.I., Dahalan, H.T., Abdullah Sani, Shafie, Jalil, M.S., Faridah-Hanum, I. & Latiff, A. (2005). Taman Negeri Gunung Stong, Kelantan: Pengurusan, Persekitaran Fizikal, Biologi dan Sosio-ekonomi. Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 442.
  22. Wan Shaharuddin, W.N, Ibrahim, S.N, Sivananthan, T.E., Gopalakrishnan, L & Chik Wan Ab Rahman, C.K.M.Z (2020). Corridors of Life: Connecting Wildlife within the Central Forest Spine (CFS). Department of Wildlife and National Parks Peninsular Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur.
  23. Mohd Nazip, S., Rahmat, Mohamad, Zaini, A. & Mohamad Azlan, M.A. (2011). Kuala Keniam: Nature's Treasure Trove in The Heartland. University Publication Centre (UPENA), Universiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM), Shah Alam, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia. pp. 134.
  24. Mohammad, M.S., Zainon, K & Zulfadhlan, A.K. (2013). Proceedings of The 2nd Temengor Scientific Expedition 2012. Pulau Banding Foundation, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia. pp. 388.
  25. Nik Ahmad Irwan Izzauddin, N. H., Suhaila, A.H. & Zarul, H.H. (2019). Royal Belum-Temengor Rainforest : The Hidden Treasure of Perak. Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia and Kementerian Air, Tanah dan Sumber Asli. pp. 300.
Chapter in book
  1. Davison, G.W.H. & Akbar, Z. (2007). The Status of Mammalian Biodiversity in Malaysia. In Chua, L.S.L., Kirton, L.G. & Saw, L.G. (Eds.), Status of Biological Diversity in Malaysia and Threat Assessment of Plant Species in Malaysia: Proceedings of the Seminar and Workshop, 28-30 June 2005. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM). pp. 3-27.
  2. Lim, B.L., Ratnam, L. & Hussien, N. A. (2003). Small Mammals Diversity in Pasoh Forest Reserve, Negeri Sembilan, Peninsular Malaysia. In Okuda, T., Manokaran, N. & Ashton, P.S. (Eds.), Pasoh: Ecology of a Lowland Rain Forest in Southeast Asia. Springer Tokyo. pp. 403-411.
Journal
  1. Malayan Nature Journal, Volume 73, Issue 3, p. 419, 2021
Magazine/Bulletin
  1. Identification of Commonly Traded Wildlife with a focus on the Golden Triangle (Lao PDR, Myanmar and Thailand) (2020). TRAFFIC, Southeast Asia Regional Office, Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  2. TRAFFIC Bulletin, Vol. 30 (1), 4/2018. TRAFFIC, Cambridge, UK — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  3. TRAFFIC Bulletin, Vol. 32 (2), 10/2020. TRAFFIC
  4. From Seizures to Conviction - Stronger Penalties for Serow Offences in Peninsular Malaysia (2019). TRAFFIC, Southeast Asia Regional Office, Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  5. ASEAN Biodiversity Magazine, Vol. 13 (1), 1/2014. ASEAN Centre for Biodiversity — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  6. Conservation Malaysia (19), 2014. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Malaysia. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
Newspaper Article
  1. "Elephant strolls through school canteen in Sabah". The Star. Retrieved 01 March 2018 from https://www.thestar.com.my/news/nation/2018/03/01/elephant-strolls-through-school-canteen-in-sabah/. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
Pamphlet/Brochure
  1. Elephant in Peninsular Malaysia (2012) — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  2. Identification Sheets for Wildlife Species Traded in Southeast Asia (2008) — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
Presentation Slide
  1. Landscape Conservation Approach for Wildlife in Malaysia (August 2021) — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]

Acknowledgements :- Mr. Ahmad Amir Firdaus Bin Mad Apandi, Ms. Aida Salihah Binti Abu Bakar, Ms. Ainul Aqilah Binti Mohd Nasir, Ms. Ajla Rafidah Baharom, Mrs. Aziemah Binti Kinan, Mr. Badrul Amin Bin Jaffar, Ms. Fatin Qurratul 'ain Binti Saberam, Mr. Mohd Zulfadli Bin Mohd Arshad, Ms. Noor Amira Aini Binti Noor Anwar, Ms. Norayuni Binti Ramlee, Mrs. Nur Hazwanie Binti Abd Halim, Ms. Nurfadzilah Bt Azmi, Ms. Nurfarhana Hizan Binti Hijas, Ms. Nurul Aimi Amirah Binti Mohd Zaki, Mr. Tan Kok Kiat & Mr. Yasser Mohamed Arifin

Species Citation :- Elephas maximus. Malaysia Biodiversity Information System (MyBIS). Accessed via https://www.mybis.gov.my/sp/19993. [Retrieved 27 May 2022].

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Website Citation: MyBIS (2022). Malaysia Biodiversity Information System. Published on the Internet https://www.mybis.gov.my/, Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources, Malaysia Biodiversity Centre & Forest Research Institute Malaysia. [Retrieved 27 May 2022].