Native Animals

Helarctos malayanus

Malayan Sun Bear
VU
Vulnerable
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
ver 3.1, 2017
VU
Vulnerable
Red List of Mammals for Peninsular Malaysia
Peninsular Malaysia ver 3.1, 2009
QR Code
SSN 20023
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Taxonomy

The taxonomic status is pending for approval

Description

The Malayan Sun Bear or Beruang Matahari is scientifically known as Helarctos malayanus. Its common name is based on the U-shaped golden yellowish mark on its chest that resembles the sun. The bear can grow up to 150 cm in length and 65 kg in weight making it the world’s smallest bear.

Among bear species, H. malayanus is the only tropical bear species that inhabits tropical lowland rainforests throughout much of Southeast Asia (Servheen, 1999). It is mainly distributed in the tropical evergreen rainforests of Borneo, Sumatra, and Peninsular Malaysia.

Helarctos malayanus is a skillful climber with long curved claws that enables it to adapt to a largely arboreal lifestyle. It also has loose skin which enables it to twist or turn around when being bitten to defend itself against predators. Another remarkable feature of the Malayan Sun Bear is its long tongue which is used to extract grubs and honey from nests. The Malayan Sun Bear is an omnivore; it feeds on fruits, insects, small mammals and birds (Wong et al., 2002).

Habits

  Part Habit
 
Carnivore   —   The eating of animals

Habitats

No Description Suitability Seasonality
1
Forest → Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland Forest
Suitable Unknown
References : http://www.iucnredlist.org/technical-documents/classification-schemes/habitats-classification-scheme-ver3

Assessment

Year Published Assessment Red List Category Version
2017 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Vulnerable (VU)
3.1
2009 Red List of Mammals for Peninsular Malaysia
Vulnerable (VU)
Peninsular Malaysia
3.1
2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Vulnerable (VU)
3.1
1996 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Data Deficient (DD)
N/A
1994 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Vulnerable (VU)
N/A
1990 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Vulnerable (VU)
N/A

Biodiversity Experts

Profile
Amy Then Yee Hui (Dr.)
University of Malaya (UM)
  • Fishes (Ecology)
  • Seahorses (Ecology)
  • Mammals (Ecology)
  • Protected Areas
  • Marine & Coastal
  • PM
  • W
Chong Ju Lian (Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT)
  • Mammals (Ecology)
  • Vascular (Ecology)
  • Invasive Alien Species
  • Protected Areas
  • Digital Sequence Information (DSI)
  • Marine & Coastal
  • Climate Change
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
  • W
David Magintan (Mr.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
  • Mammals
  • Elephants
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Environment
  • Protected Areas
  • PM
Faisal Ali Anwarali Khan (Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS)
  • Mammals
  • Bats
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Data Analysis
  • Evolution
  • Forest
  • Molecular
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
Farah Shafawati Mohd Taib (Dr.)
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM)
  • Birds
  • Mammals
  • Rodents
  • Treeshrews
  • Squirrels
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Data Analysis
  • Ecosystems
  • Taxonomy
  • PM
Jayaraj Vijaya Kumaran (Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Kelantan (UMK)
  • Mammals
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Genetics
  • Digital Sequence Information (DSI)
Jeffrine Rovie Ryan Japning (Mr.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
  • Monkeys
  • Fishes
  • Mammals
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Data Analysis
  • Evolution
  • Genetics
  • Molecular
  • Protected Areas
  • Science
  • Technology
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
Kayal Vizi Karuppannan (Mrs.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
  • Elephants
  • Fishes
  • Mammals
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Evolution
  • Genetics
  • Molecular
  • Protected Areas
  • Digital Sequence Information (DSI)
  • PM
Midhat Nabil Ahmad Salimi (Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP)
  • Mammals
  • Biodiversity
  • Climate Change
  • Data Analysis
  • Ecosystems
  • Education
  • Environment
  • Genetics
  • History
  • Management
  • Medical
  • Molecular
  • Science
  • Technology
  • Water
  • Digital Sequence Information (DSI)
  • Living Modified Organism (LMO)
  • Synthetic Biology
  • Protected Areas
  • Marine & Coastal
  • Invasive Alien Species
  • PM
  • SEA
  • W
Mohammad Shahfiz Azman (Mr.)
Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM)
  • Amphibians
  • Mammals
  • Birds
  • Awareness
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Ecosystems
  • Environment
  • Forest
  • Landscape
  • Law and Policy
  • Management
  • Protected Areas
  • Science
  • Systematics
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
Mohd Tajuddin Abdullah (Prof. Dato' Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT)
  • Mammals
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Ecosystems
  • Evolution
  • Genetics
  • Protected Areas
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
Nasharuddin Bin Othman (Mr.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
  • Mammals (Ecology)
  • Conservation
  • Management
  • Protected Areas
  • PM
Rahimatsah Amat (Dr.)
Sabah Environmental Trust (SET)
  • Mammals (Ecology)
  • Environment
  • Management
  • Protected Areas
  • SEA
Rahmat Topani (Mr.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
  • Mammals (Ecology)
  • Conservation
  • Protected Areas
  • Marine & Coastal
  • PM
Rosli Hashim (Prof. Dr.)
University of Malaya (UM)
  • Birds (Ecology)
  • Mammals (Ecology)
  • Spiders
  • Insects
  • Biodiversity
  • Protected Areas
  • PM
  • W
Rosli Ramli (Assoc. Prof. Dr.)
University of Malaya (UM)
  • Mammals (Ecology)
  • Birds
  • Biodiversity
  • Digital Sequence Information (DSI)
  • Protected Areas
  • Marine & Coastal
  • PM
  • W
Saifullah A. Jaaman @ Sharman (Assoc. Prof.)
Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT)
  • Mammals
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Marine & Coastal
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
Tan Cheng Cheng (Ms.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
  • Mammals (Ecology)
  • Protected Areas
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
Tan Poai Ean (Ms.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
  • Bats
  • Mammals
  • Rodents
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Ecosystems
  • Management
  • PM
PM - Peninsular Malaysia; SBH - Sabah; SWK - Sarawak; SEA - Southeast Asia; W - World;

References

Article
  1. Understanding and solving the South-East Asian snaring crisis. The Ecological Citizen 4 (2): pp. 129-141 — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  2. Aihara, Y., Hosaka, T., Yasuda, M., Hashim, M. & Numata, S. (2016). Mammalian Wildlife Tourism in South-East Asian Tropical Rainforests: The Case of Endau Rompin National Park, Malaysia. Journal of Tropical Forest Science 28 (2): pp. 167-181
  3. Azman, N.M., Abdul Latip, N.S., Shahrul Anuar, M.S., Mohd Abdul Muin, M.A., Shafie, N.J. & Khairuddin, N.L. (2011). Avian Diversity and Feeding Guilds in a Secondary Forest, an Oil Palm Plantation and a Paddy Field in Riparian Areas of the Kerian River Basin, Perak, Malaysia. Tropical Life Sciences Research (TSLR) 22 (2): pp. 45–64
  4. Shahfiz, M.A., Shahrul Anuar, M.S., Kaviarasu, M., Fauzi, M.Z. & Rizal, M.R. (2013). Preliminary Checklist of Mammals at Sungai Enam in Temengor Forest Reserve, Perak, Peninsular Malaysia. : pp. 197-214
  5. Scotson, L., Fredriksson, G., Ngoprasert, D., Wong, W-M & Fieberg, J. (2017). Projecting rangewide sun bear population trends using tree cover and camera-trap bycatch data. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  6. Nakashima, Y., Lagan, P. & Kitayama, K. (2007). A Study of Fruit–Frugivore Interactions in Two Species of Durian (Durio, Bombacaceae) in Sabah, Malaysia. 40 (2): pp. 255–258
  7. Magintan, D., Mohamad Rufino, B.M., Cosmas, N. & Dennis, T.C.Y. (2009). Some evidences of Sumatran Rhinoceros presence in Temengor Forest Reserve, Perak. Journal of Wildlife and Parks 26: pp. 5-10
  8. Suis, M.A.F., Miun, J., Tingkoi, L. & Nilus, R. (2019). Inventory of terrestrial mammals and birds in Sungai Pin Conservation Area, Kinabatangan. Sepilok Bulletin. 28: pp. 49-68
  9. Magintan, D., Ilias, R., Ismail, A., Adrian, J., Rasdi, I. & Mohd. Sanusi, M. (2015). A Preliminary Observation of Mammals and Other Species Visiting Artificial Salt Licks in Peninsular Malaysia. Journal of Wildlife and Parks 30: pp. 59-74
  10. Moseley, M., Wyn, L.T. & Tshen, L.T. (2012). Fauna Reported from Batu Caves, Selangor, Malaysia: Annotated Checklist and Bibliography. 39 (2): pp. 77-92
Book
  1. A visitor's guidebook to Endau-Rompin (Johor) National Park, 2019. Johor National Parks Corporation and UNDP Malaysia. pp. 108.
  2. ASEAN Biodiversity Outlook 2, 2017. ASEAN Centre for Biodiversity, Philippines. pp. 220. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  3. Biodiversity expedition Sungai Bebar, Pekan, Pahang summary findings, 2005. Peat Swamp Forest Project, UNDP/GEF Funded. pp. 169.
  4. Biodiversity in Plantation Landscapes, 2012. Wild Asia and the Malaysian Palm Oil Council, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. pp. 130. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  5. Malaysian Naturalist, Volume 74, Issue/No. 4, 2021. Malaysian Nature Society, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. pp. 311.
  6. National Tiger Action Plan for Malaysia, 2008. Department of Wildlife and National Parks Peninsular Malaysia. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  7. Red List of Mammals for Peninsular Malaysia: Red List Mamalia Semenanjung Malaysia, 2010. Department of Wildlife and National Parks (DWNP), Peninsular Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 150. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  8. The Network of Protected Forests in Telupid, Sabah: Biodiversity & Conservation in the Heart of Borneo, 2014. Sabah Forestry Department, Sabah, Malaysia. pp. 155.
  9. Tourism and Visitor Management in Protected Areas: Guidelines for sustainability, 2018. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. pp. 128. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  10. Beastall, C.A. & Chng, S.C.L. (2021). Identification of Commonly Traded Wildlife in Southeast Asia. TRAFFIC, Southeast Asia Regional Office, Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  11. Sasekumar, A. & Chong, V.C. (2012). Mangrove and Coastal Environment of Selangor, Malaysia. Universiti Malaya, Malaysia. pp. 290.
  12. Shaharuddin, M.I., Dahalan, H.T., Abdullah Sani, Shafie, Jalil, M.S., Faridah-Hanum, I. & Latiff, A. (2005). Taman Negeri Gunung Stong, Kelantan: Pengurusan, Persekitaran Fizikal, Biologi dan Sosio-ekonomi. Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 442.
  13. Wan Shaharuddin, W.N, Ibrahim, S.N, Sivananthan, T.E., Gopalakrishnan, L & Chik Wan Ab Rahman, C.K.M.Z (2020). Corridors of Life: Connecting Wildlife within the Central Forest Spine (CFS). Department of Wildlife and National Parks Peninsular Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur.
  14. Hasdi, Hassan (2008). Rezab Hidupan Liar Sungai Dusun: Inspirasi Rimba Alam. Jabatan Perlindungan Hidupan Liar dan Taman Negara (PERHILITAN), Malaysia. pp. 74.
  15. Hazebroek, H.P., Adlin, T.Z. & Sinun, W. (2011). Danum Valley: The Rain Forest. Natural History Publications (Borneo), Malaysia. pp. 615.
  16. Hutton, W. (2013). Sepilok Forest: Preserving Sabah's Natural Heritage. Sabah Forestry Department. pp. 113.
  17. Khan, M.M. (1992). Mamalia Semenanjung Malaysia. Jabatan Perlindungan Hidupan Liar dan Taman Negara (PERHILITAN), Malaysia. pp. 182.
  18. Abdul Rahman, A.R., Mohd Nasir, A.H., Mohamed Zin, Y., Richard, A.M. & Latiff, A. (2013). Banjaran Bintang Gunung Inas, Kedah: Pengurusan Hutan, Persekitaran Fizikal dan Kepelbagaian Biologi. Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 245.
  19. Mohammad, M.S., Zainon, K & Zulfadhlan, A.K. (2013). Proceedings of The 2nd Temengor Scientific Expedition 2012. Pulau Banding Foundation, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia. pp. 388.
  20. Mohd Hizamri, M.Y, Grippin, A & Norhayati, A. (2021). Taman Negeri Rompin Pahang: A World of Wonders and Enchantments. Pahang State Forestry Department.
  21. Abd. Latif, M., Mohti, A., Musa, S. & Parlan, I. (2020). Malaysia's Tropical Rainforests - Splendour To Behold. Forest Research Institute Malaysia. pp. 212.
  22. Nik Mohd Maseri, Nik Mohamad (2009). Gunung Stong State Forest Park: A Guidebook. WWF-Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 24.
  23. Tan, P.E., Norazlinda, A.R., Nosrat, R. & Saaban, S. (2015). Field Guides - Identification Key for Non-Volant Terrestrial Mammals of Peninsular Malaysia. Department of Wildlife and National Parks (DWNP) Peninsular Malaysia. pp. 56.
  24. Payne, J. & Francis, C.M. (1985). A Field Guide to the Mammals of Borneo. The Sabah Society, Malaysia. pp. 326.
  25. Phillipps, Q. & Phillipps, K. (2016). Phillipps’ Guide to the Mammals of Borneo and their Ecology: Sabah, Sarawak, Brunei, and Kalimantan. Natural History Publications (Borneo), Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia. pp. 400.
  26. T. Marina, T. Ibrahim & Shamsul, K. (2009). Kepelbagaian Biologi Flora, Fauna dan Nilai Ekonomi Hutan Simpan Tranum, Pahang. Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 140.
  27. Meijaard, E., Garcia-Ulloa, J, Sheil, D, Wich, S., Carlson, K.M, Juffe-Bignoli, D & Brooks, T.M (2018). Oil palm and biodiversity : a situation analysis by the IUCN Oil Palm Task Force. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. pp. 116. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  28. Nik Ahmad Irwan Izzauddin, N. H., Suhaila, A.H. & Zarul, H.H. (2019). Royal Belum-Temengor Rainforest : The Hidden Treasure of Perak. Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia and Kementerian Air, Tanah dan Sumber Asli. pp. 300.
Chapter in book
  1. Davison, G.W.H. & Akbar, Z. (2007). The Status of Mammalian Biodiversity in Malaysia. In Chua, L.S.L., Kirton, L.G. & Saw, L.G. (Eds.), Status of Biological Diversity in Malaysia and Threat Assessment of Plant Species in Malaysia: Proceedings of the Seminar and Workshop, 28-30 June 2005. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM). pp. 3-27.
  2. Lim, B.L., Ratnam, L. & Hussien, N. A. (2003). Small Mammals Diversity in Pasoh Forest Reserve, Negeri Sembilan, Peninsular Malaysia. In Okuda, T., Manokaran, N. & Ashton, P.S. (Eds.), Pasoh: Ecology of a Lowland Rain Forest in Southeast Asia. Springer Tokyo. pp. 403-411.
Magazine/Bulletin
  1. Bio-Bulletin, Vol. 2 (December 2015). School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  2. Identification of Commonly Traded Wildlife with a focus on the Golden Triangle (Lao PDR, Myanmar and Thailand) (2020). TRAFFIC, Southeast Asia Regional Office, Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  3. Malaysian Naturalist, Vol. 72 (2), 2/2019. Malaysian Nature Society (MNS)
  4. Malaysian Naturalist, Vol. 72 (3), 3/2019. Malaysian Nature Society, Malaysia.
  5. TRAFFIC Bulletin, Vol. 30 (2), 10/2018. TRAFFIC, UK — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  6. Conservation Malaysia (4), 2007. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Malaysia. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  7. ASEAN Biodiversity Magazine, Vol. 13 (1), 1/2014. ASEAN Centre for Biodiversity — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  8. Conservation Malaysia (19), 2014. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Malaysia. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
Pamphlet/Brochure
  1. Identification Sheets for Wildlife Species Traded in Southeast Asia (2008) — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  2. Visitor Guide Bornean Sun Bear Conservation Centre — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
Report
  1. CPSG Annual Report 2017 - Changing the Future for Wildlife. Conservation Planning Specialist Group (IUCN/SSC/CPSG), United States of America. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  2. Sixth National Report of Malaysia to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Ministry of Energy and Natural Resource, Malaysia. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]

Acknowledgements :- Mr. Ahmad Amir Firdaus Bin Mad Apandi, Ms. Aida Salihah Binti Abu Bakar, Ms. Ainul Aqilah Binti Mohd Nasir, Ms. Ajla Rafidah Baharom, Mrs. Aziemah Binti Kinan, Mr. Badrul Amin Bin Jaffar, Ms. Fatin Qurratul 'ain Binti Saberam, Mr. Mohd Zulfadli Bin Mohd Arshad, Mr. Muhammad Farhan Bin Abd Wahab, Ms. Noor Amira Aini Binti Noor Anwar, Mrs. Noor Ashikin Binti Hj. Mohamad, Ms. Norayuni Binti Ramlee, Mrs. Nur Hazwanie Binti Abd Halim, Ms. Nur Razan Faiqah Binti Zahili, Ms. Nurfadzilah Bt Azmi, Ms. Nurfarhana Hizan Binti Hijas, Ms. Nurul Aimi Amirah Binti Mohd Zaki, Mr. Tan Kok Kiat & Mr. Yasser Mohamed Arifin

Species Citation :- Helarctos malayanus. Malaysia Biodiversity Information System (MyBIS). Accessed via https://www.mybis.gov.my/sp/20023. [Retrieved 19 May 2022].

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Website Citation: MyBIS (2022). Malaysia Biodiversity Information System. Published on the Internet https://www.mybis.gov.my/, Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources, Malaysia Biodiversity Centre & Forest Research Institute Malaysia. [Retrieved 19 May 2022].