Native Animals

Maxomys rajah

Rajah Spiny Rat
VU
Vulnerable
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
ver 3.1, 2016
QR Code
SSN 20171
Scan QR code for mobile experience
Download QR:

Taxonomy

The taxonomic status is pending for approval

Description

Brown spiny rat or locally known as Tikus Duri Hitam Pudar is one of the species from the family Muridae (Rats and Mice). Its body is covered with brown, sometimes with tinged reddish or orange hairs and has a darker midline with numerous stiff grey-brown spines (Francis, 2019). Its underparts are white with many short, soft white spines and usually with dark brown streaks along the middle of the belly in adults. Its inner sides of thighs are covered with white hairs which normally extend to feet. Its tail is sharply bicoloured, dark brown above and pale below, with thinly haired features. This species is about 16.5-22.5 cm (head-body length) and weighs around 95-220 g.

The brown spiny rat occurs throughout peninsular Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo and adjacent smaller islands (Francis, 2019). It inhabits primary and secondary lowland forests up to 1100 m, including peat swamp forests and is occasionally found in plantations, especially those adjacent to forests (Nor, 2001; Francis, 2019; Phillipps & Phillipps, 2016). 

Habitats

No Description Suitability Seasonality
1
Forest → Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland Forest
Suitable Unknown
References : http://www.iucnredlist.org/technical-documents/classification-schemes/habitats-classification-scheme-ver3

Assessment

Year Published Assessment Red List Category Version
2016 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Vulnerable (VU)
3.1
2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Vulnerable (VU)
3.1
1996 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Least Concern (LC)
N/A

Biodiversity Experts

Profile
Amy Then Yee Hui (Dr.)
University of Malaya (UM)
  • Fishes (Ecology)
  • Seahorses (Ecology)
  • Mammals (Ecology)
  • Protected Areas
  • Marine & Coastal
  • PM
  • W
Chong Ju Lian (Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT)
  • Mammals (Ecology)
  • Vascular (Ecology)
  • Invasive Alien Species
  • Protected Areas
  • Digital Sequence Information (DSI)
  • Marine & Coastal
  • Climate Change
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
  • W
David Magintan (Mr.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
  • Mammals
  • Elephants
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Environment
  • Protected Areas
  • PM
Faisal Ali Anwarali Khan (Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS)
  • Mammals
  • Bats
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Data Analysis
  • Evolution
  • Forest
  • Molecular
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
Farah Shafawati Mohd Taib (Dr.)
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM)
  • Birds
  • Mammals
  • Rodents
  • Treeshrews
  • Squirrels
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Data Analysis
  • Ecosystems
  • Taxonomy
  • PM
Hasmahzaiti Omar (Dr.)
University of Malaya (UM)
  • Rodents (Taxonomy)
  • Biodiversity
  • PM
Jayaraj Vijaya Kumaran (Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Kelantan (UMK)
  • Mammals
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Genetics
  • Digital Sequence Information (DSI)
Jeffrine Rovie Ryan Japning (Mr.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
  • Monkeys
  • Fishes
  • Mammals
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Data Analysis
  • Evolution
  • Genetics
  • Molecular
  • Protected Areas
  • Science
  • Technology
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
Kayal Vizi Karuppannan (Mrs.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
  • Elephants
  • Fishes
  • Mammals
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Evolution
  • Genetics
  • Molecular
  • Protected Areas
  • Digital Sequence Information (DSI)
  • PM
Lim Boo Liat (Dr.)
  • Reptiles (Ecology)
  • Rodents (Ecology)
  • Amphibians (Ecology)
  • Biodiversity
  • Ecosystems
  • Invasive Alien Species
Mariana Bt. Ahamad (Dr.)
Institute for Medical Research (IMR)
  • Rodents
  • Biodiversity
  • Medical
  • Molecular
  • Science
  • Invasive Alien Species
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
Midhat Nabil Ahmad Salimi (Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP)
  • Mammals
  • Biodiversity
  • Climate Change
  • Data Analysis
  • Ecosystems
  • Education
  • Environment
  • Genetics
  • History
  • Management
  • Medical
  • Molecular
  • Science
  • Technology
  • Water
  • Digital Sequence Information (DSI)
  • Living Modified Organism (LMO)
  • Synthetic Biology
  • Protected Areas
  • Marine & Coastal
  • Invasive Alien Species
  • PM
  • SEA
  • W
Mohammad Shahfiz Azman (Mr.)
Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM)
  • Amphibians
  • Mammals
  • Birds
  • Awareness
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Ecosystems
  • Environment
  • Forest
  • Landscape
  • Law and Policy
  • Management
  • Protected Areas
  • Science
  • Systematics
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
Mohd Tajuddin Abdullah (Prof. Dato' Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT)
  • Mammals
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Ecosystems
  • Evolution
  • Genetics
  • Protected Areas
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
Muhammad Farhan Bin Abd Wahab (Dr.)
University of Malaya (UM)
  • Rodents (Ecology)
  • Rodents (Taxonomy)
  • Conservation
  • Data Analysis
  • Ecology
  • Genetics
  • Molecular
  • Systematics
  • Taxonomy
  • PM
Nasharuddin Bin Othman (Mr.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
  • Mammals (Ecology)
  • Conservation
  • Management
  • Protected Areas
  • PM
Rahimatsah Amat (Dr.)
Sabah Environmental Trust (SET)
  • Mammals (Ecology)
  • Environment
  • Management
  • Protected Areas
  • SEA
Rahmat Topani (Mr.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
  • Mammals (Ecology)
  • Conservation
  • Protected Areas
  • Marine & Coastal
  • PM
Rosli Hashim (Prof. Dr.)
University of Malaya (UM)
  • Birds (Ecology)
  • Mammals (Ecology)
  • Spiders
  • Insects
  • Biodiversity
  • Protected Areas
  • PM
  • W
Rosli Ramli (Assoc. Prof. Dr.)
University of Malaya (UM)
  • Mammals (Ecology)
  • Birds
  • Biodiversity
  • Digital Sequence Information (DSI)
  • Protected Areas
  • Marine & Coastal
  • PM
  • W
Saifullah A. Jaaman @ Sharman (Assoc. Prof.)
Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT)
  • Mammals
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Marine & Coastal
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
Tan Cheng Cheng (Ms.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
  • Mammals (Ecology)
  • Protected Areas
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
Tan Poai Ean (Ms.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
  • Bats
  • Mammals
  • Rodents
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Ecosystems
  • Management
  • PM
PM - Peninsular Malaysia; SBH - Sabah; SWK - Sarawak; SEA - Southeast Asia; W - World;

References

Article
  1. Faradiana, N.M.F., Shahfiz, M.A., Kaviarasu, M., Nor Hazwani, A.R. & Alwani, N.Z. (2019). Checklist on small vertebrates at Bukit Tarek Forest Reserve, Selangor. Journal of Wildlife and Parks 34
  2. Aihara, Y., Hosaka, T., Yasuda, M., Hashim, M. & Numata, S. (2016). Mammalian Wildlife Tourism in South-East Asian Tropical Rainforests: The Case of Endau Rompin National Park, Malaysia. Journal of Tropical Forest Science 28 (2): pp. 167-181
  3. Jayaraj, V.K., Daud, S.H.M., Azhar, M.-I., Shahrul Anuar, M.S., Mokhtar, S.I. & Abdullah, M.T. (2013). Diversity and Conservation status of Mammals in Wang Kelian State Park, Perlis, Malaysia. Check List. 9 (6): pp. 1439-1448
  4. Konstans, W. & Bagchi, R. (2005). Eat in or Take Away – Seed Predation and Removal by Rats (Muridae) During a Fruiting Event in a Dipterocarp Rainforest. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, 53(2): 281-286.
  5. Konstans, W., Corlett, R.T., Lakim, M., Kalko, E.K.V. & Pfeiffer, M. (2009). Seed consumption by small mammals from Borneo. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 25: 555-558.
  6. Madinah, A., Fatimah, A., Mariana, A. & Abdullah, M.T. (2011). Ectoparasites of Small Mammals in Four Localities of Wildlife Reserves in Peninsular Malaysia. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, 42(4): 803-813 .
  7. Mohd-Zain, S.N. & Syed-Arnez, A.S.K. (2005). Parasitofauna of the Wild Rat Population at Selai, Endau-Rompin National Park, Johor, Malaysia. The Forests and Biodiversity of Selai Endau-Rompin. pp. 215-218
  8. Nakagawa, M., Miguchi, H., Sato, K. & Nakashizuka, T. (2007). A Preliminary Study of Two Sympatric Maxomys Rats in Sarawak, Malaysia: Spacing Patterns and Population Dynamics. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, 55(2): 381–387.
  9. Nor, S.M., Batin, Z. & Zubaid, A. (2001). Elevational Diversity Pattern of Non-volant Small Mammals on Mount Nuang, Hulu Langat, Selangor. Journal of Biological Sciences, 1 (11):1081-1084.
  10. Ramli, R. & Hashim, R. (2009). Diversity of Small Mammals Inhabiting Disturbed Forest: A Case Study on Kenaboi Forest Reserve, Jelebu, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. Malaysian Journal of Science 28 (4): pp. 481-490
  11. Ruppert, N., Asyraf, M. & Shahrul Anuar, M.S. (2015). Diversity and biomass of terrestrial small mammals at a Malaysian primary rainforest (Segari Melintang Forest Reserve, Peninsular Malaysia). The Journal of Tropical Life Science 5 (1): pp. 33-42 — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  12. Shahfiz, M.A., Shahrul Anuar, M.S., Kaviarasu, M., Fauzi, M.Z. & Rizal, M.R. (2013). Preliminary Checklist of Mammals at Sungai Enam in Temengor Forest Reserve, Perak, Peninsular Malaysia. : pp. 197-214
  13. Syakirah, S., Prentice, C., Lopez, A., Azmin, M. R. & Yusof, A. M. (2000). A small- mammal survey at Tasek Bera, Pahang, Malaysia's first Ramsar Site. Malayan Nature Journal 54 (1): pp. 31-41
  14. Thayaparan, S., Robertson, I. & Abdullah, M.T. (2015). Serological and molecular detection of Leptospira spp. from small wild mammals captured in Sarawak, Malaysia. Malaysian Journal of Microbiology 11(1): 93-101.
Book
  1. Abdul Rahman, A.R., Mohd Nasir, A.H., Mohamed Zin, Y., Richard, A.M. & Latiff, A. (2013). Banjaran Bintang Gunung Inas, Kedah: Pengurusan Hutan, Persekitaran Fizikal dan Kepelbagaian Biologi, Issue/No. . Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 245.
  2. Abdul Rahman, A.R., Mohd Nasir, A.H., Ahmad Fadzil, A.M., Richard, A.M. & Latiff, A. (2014). Hutan Gunung Besar Hantu, Negeri Sembilan: Pengurusan Hutan, Persekitaran Fizikal dan Kepelbagaian Biologi, Issue/No. . Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 254.
  3. Abdul Rahman, A.R., Yahaya, M., Mohd Nasir, A.H., Muhamad, A. & Latiff, A. (2012). Hutan Simpan Gunung Belumut, Johor: Pengurusan Hutan, Persekitaran Fizikal dan Kepelbagaian Biologi, Issue/No. . Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 271.
  4. Abdul Rahman, A.R., Mohd Nasir, A.H., Azmi, N., Nor Hasliza, M.B. & Latiff, A. (2014). Hutan Simpan Gunung Tebu, Terengganu: Pengurusan Hutan, Persekitaran Fizikal dan Kepelbagaian Biologi, Issue/No. . Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 343.
  5. Abdul Rahman, A.R., Koh, H.L., Muhamad, A., Wan Yusof, W.K. & Latiff, A. (2011). Hutan Simpan Melaka: Pengurusan Hutan, Persekitaran Fizikal, Kepelbagaian Biologi dan Socio-ekonomi, Issue/No. . Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 315.
  6. Abdul Rahman, A.R., Mohd Nasir, A.H., Mohd. Puat, Dahalan, Muhamad, A. & Latiff, A. (2012). Taman Negeri Bukit Panchor dan Pulau Jerejak, Pulau Pinang: Pengurusan Hutan, Persekitaran Fizikal dan Kepelbagaian Biologi, Issue/No. . Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 263.
  7. Abdul Rahman, A.R., Koh, H.L., Muhamad, A. & Latiff, A. (2011). Taman Negeri DiRaja Belum, Perak: Pengurusan Hutan, Persekitaran Fizikal, Kepelbagaian Biologi dan Socio-ekonomi, Issue/No. . Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 332.
  8. Chua, L.S.L. (2021). Biodiversity Assessment and Monitoring Protocol in the Central Forest Spine Landscape, Issue/No. . Forest Research Institute Malaysia. pp. 120.
  9. Hazebroek, H.P., Adlin, T.Z. & Sinun, W. (2011). Danum Valley: The Rain Forest, Issue/No. . Natural History Publications (Borneo), Malaysia. pp. 615.
  10. Khan, M.M. (1992). Mamalia Semenanjung Malaysia, Issue/No. . Jabatan Perlindungan Hidupan Liar dan Taman Negara (PERHILITAN), Malaysia. pp. 182.
  11. Latiff, A. (2010). Bukit Nanas Forest Reserve: Green Lung of Kuala Lumpur, Issue/No. . Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 100.
  12. Mohammad, M.S., Zainon, K & Zulfadhlan, A.K. (2013). Proceedings of The 2nd Temengor Scientific Expedition 2012, Issue/No. . Pulau Banding Foundation, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia. pp. 388.
  13. Mohammad Khairi, A (2007). Taman Negara Pulau Pinang: Sinar Mutiara Belantara, Issue/No. . Jabatan Perlindungan Hidupan Liar dan Taman Negara, Malaysia. pp. 112.
  14. Nee, T. A. & Norhayati, N. (2018). Compendium of Facts and Figures. 3rd Edition, Volume 3, Issue/No. . Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Malaysia. pp. 174.
  15. Payne, J. & Francis, C.M. (1985). A Field Guide to the Mammals of Borneo, Issue/No. . The Sabah Society, Malaysia. pp. 326.
  16. Phillipps, Q. & Phillipps, K. (2016). Phillipps’ Field Guide to the Mammals of Borneo and Their Ecology: Sabah, Sarawak, Brunei and Kalimantan, Issue/No. . United Kingdom: John Beaufoy Publishing Ltd.
  17. Phillipps, Q. & Phillipps, K. (2016). Phillipps’ Guide to the Mammals of Borneo and their Ecology: Sabah, Sarawak, Brunei, and Kalimantan, Issue/No. . Natural History Publications (Borneo), Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia. pp. 400.
  18. Praveena, B.K. & Maria Arlene, J.A.S. (2013). Compendium of Facts and Figures. 2nd Edition, Issue/No. . Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Malaysia. pp. 161.
  19. Ratnam, L. (1995). Windows on The Forest: Glimpses of FRIM for the Nature Loving Visitor, Issue/No. 1. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Malaysia. pp. 143.
  20. Shaharuddin, M.I., Che, H.H., Mohd. Puat, Dahalan, Jalil, M.S., Norhaidi, Y. & Latiff, A. (2005). Hutan Simpan Ulu Muda, Kedah: Pengurusan, Persekitaran Fizikal Dan Biologi, Issue/No. . Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 310.
  21. Shaharuddin, M.I., Mokhtar, M.I., Wan Yusof, W.A., M. Rahim, R. & Latiff, A. (2004). Taman Negeri Endau Rompin : Pengurusan, Persekitaran Fizikal dan Biologi, Issue/No. . Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 378.
  22. Shaharuddin, M.I., Dahalan, H.T., Abdullah Sani, Shafie, Jalil, M.S., Faridah-Hanum, I. & Latiff, A. (2005). Taman Negeri Gunung Stong, Kelantan: Pengurusan, Persekitaran Fizikal, Biologi dan Sosio-ekonomi, Issue/No. . Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 442.
  23. Tan, P.E., Norazlinda, A.R., Nosrat, R. & Saaban, S. (2015). Field Guides - Identification Key for Non-Volant Terrestrial Mammals of Peninsular Malaysia, Issue/No. . Department of Wildlife and National Parks (DWNP) Peninsular Malaysia. pp. 56.
Chapter in book
  1. Davison, G.W.H. & Akbar, Z. (2007). The Status of Mammalian Biodiversity in Malaysia. In Chua, L.S.L., Kirton, L.G. & Saw, L.G. (Eds.), Status of Biological Diversity in Malaysia and Threat Assessment of Plant Species in Malaysia: Proceedings of the Seminar and Workshop, 28-30 June 2005. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM). pp. 3-27.
  2. Lim, B.L., Ratnam, L. & Hussien, N. A. (2003). Small Mammals Diversity in Pasoh Forest Reserve, Negeri Sembilan, Peninsular Malaysia. In Okuda, T., Manokaran, N. & Ashton, P.S. (Eds.), Pasoh: Ecology of a Lowland Rain Forest in Southeast Asia. Springer Tokyo. pp. 403-411.
Journal
  1. Asian Primates Journal, Volume 4, Issue 2, p. 60, 2014
Newsletter
  1. Ida Suraini, A.S. (2011, September). FRIM in FOCUS. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM). Retrived November 13, 2015, from https://www.mybis.gov.my/art/120
Short-note
  1. A new record of Chaerephone johorensis at Mount Jerai,Kedah, Malaysia. Malayan Nature Journal 64 (4), 2013

Acknowledgements :- Mr. Abdul Razak Mohd Nor Rasid, Mr. Ahmad Hafizuddin Bin Rohim@rahim, Ms. Aida Salihah Binti Abu Bakar, Ms. Ainul Aqilah Binti Mohd Nasir, Ms. Ajla Rafidah Baharom, Mrs. Aziemah Binti Kinan, Mr. Badrul Amin Bin Jaffar, Ms. Fatin Qurratul 'ain Binti Saberam, Mrs. Hakimah Binti Jaafar, Ms. Irawati Binti Munajat, Ms. Mira Farzana Binti Mohamad Mokhtar, Mr. Mohd Hilmi Bin Sulong, Mr. Mohd Zulfadli Bin Mohd Arshad, Mr. Muhamad Hamidin Bin Hassan, Dr. Muhammad Farhan Bin Abd Wahab, Ms. Noor Amira Aini Binti Noor Anwar, Ms. Nor Syahaliyana Binti Saidin, Mrs. Noraina Bt Ab Majid, Ms. Noraini Binti Osman, Ms. Norayuni Binti Ramlee, Mrs. Norazlinda A. Razak, Mrs. Nur Hazwanie Binti Abd Halim, Ms. Nurfadzilah Bt Azmi, Ms. Nurfarhana Hizan Binti Hijas, Ms. Nurul Aimi Amirah Binti Mohd Zaki, Ms. Siti Zubaidah Binti Abdul Latif, Mr. Tan Kok Kiat & Mr. Yasser Mohamed Arifin

Photo credit :- Kaviarasu Munian & Mohammad Shahfiz Azman

Species Citation :- Maxomys rajah. Malaysia Biodiversity Information System (MyBIS). Accessed via https://www.mybis.gov.my/sp/20171. [Retrieved 02 July 2022].

Feedback :- If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback.

Back to top
Today, there are less than 200 Malayan tigers left in our country.
#SaveOurMalayanTiger. Visit www.harimau.my
Malaysia Biodiversity Information System (MyBIS)   by   Malaysia Biodiversity Centre (MBC)


Copyright © 2022, Malaysia Biodiversity Centre (MBC), Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources (KeTSA). All rights reserved. DISCLAIMER - The Malaysian Government, Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources (KeTSA), Malaysia Biodiversity Centre (MBC) and Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM) shall not be liable for any loss or damage caused by the usage of any information obtained from this website. By entering this site, you acknowledge and agree that no portion of this site, including but not limited to names, logos, trademarks, patents, sound, graphics, charts, text, audio, video, information or images are either MyBIS property or the property permitted by third-party and shall not be used without prior written approval from the owner(s).
Best viewed using latest Mozila Firefox, Google Chrome and Internet Explorer 10 with Resolution 1024 x 768px or above. Version 2.0 / 2016
Website Citation: MyBIS (2022). Malaysia Biodiversity Information System. Published on the Internet https://www.mybis.gov.my/, Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources, Malaysia Biodiversity Centre & Forest Research Institute Malaysia. [Retrieved 02 July 2022].