Native Animals

Panthera tigris

Malayan Tiger
EN
Endangered
IUCN Red List
ver 3.1, 2015
EN
Endangered
Red List of Mammals for Peninsular Malaysia
Peninsular Malaysia ver 3.1, 2009
QR Code
SSN 20269
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Taxonomy

Gallery  

Adult
Adult
Juvenile
Skin
Adult
Adult

Description

Panthera tigris is the largest member of the family Felidacea and is split into nine subspecies. Three of the tiger subspecies namely, Bali tiger (Panthera tigris balica), Javan tiger (Panthera tigris sondaica) and Caspian tiger (Panthera tigris virgata) became extinct during the 20th century.

In general, tigers can grow up to 3 m in length and weigh up to 330 kg. Most tigers have a reddish-orange coat with vertical black stripes on their body that vary in size, length and spacing. The tiger subspecies may look similar in the naked eye but there are actually some differences in terms of their skull shape, the number of teeth, size, colour and stripe pattern that can differentiate between them.

Panthera tigris jacksoni or more commonly known as the Malayan Tiger is found in Peninsular Malaysia except in the islands and do not exist in Sabah and Sarawak. In the year 2004, the Malayan Tiger was recognised as a new subspecies that is Panthera tigris jacksoni which is genetically distinct from tigers of northern Indochina, Panthera tigris corbetti. This subspecies is also the smallest subspecies with an average size of 2.4 m long and weighing 120 kg.

From the year 1995 to 2008, about 450 – 500 individuals of wild tigers were estimated in Peninsular Malaysia. The Malayan Tiger usually lives in lowland forest but can also survive in a variety of habitats such as peat swamp forest, small bush in forest plantations and mountains. They usually prey on wild boar, barking deer, sambar deer, greater mouse deer, gaur and lesser mouse deer for their diet.

Tigers are solitary animals except for their juveniles and during mating season. The tiger cub will live with its mother for up to two years while learning how to hunt, identifying hazards and adapting to the wild. The Malayan Tiger is totally protected under the Wildlife Protection Act and is listed in the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) Appendix 1. 

Habits

  Part Habit
 
Nocturnal   —   Active during the night
 
Terrestrial   —   An animal that lives on/near the ground or a plant that grows on/in/from land

Assessment

Biodiversity Experts

Profile
Chong Ju Lian (Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT)
  • Mammals (Ecology)
  • Vascular (Ecology)
  • Invasive Alien Species
  • Protected Areas
  • Digital Sequence Information (DSI)
  • Marine & Coastal
  • Climate Change
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
  • W
David Magintan (Mr.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
  • Mammals
  • Elephants
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Environment
  • Protected Areas
  • PM
Faisal Ali Anwarali Khan (Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS)
  • Mammals
  • Bats
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Data Analysis
  • Evolution
  • Forest
  • Molecular
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
Jayaraj Vijaya Kumaran (Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Kelantan (UMK)
  • Mammals
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Genetics
  • Digital Sequence Information (DSI)
Jeffrine Rovie Ryan Japning (Mr.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
  • Monkeys
  • Fishes
  • Mammals
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Data Analysis
  • Evolution
  • Genetics
  • Molecular
  • Protected Areas
  • Science
  • Technology
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
Kayal Vizi Karuppannan (Mrs.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
  • Elephants
  • Fishes
  • Mammals
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Evolution
  • Genetics
  • Molecular
  • Protected Areas
  • Digital Sequence Information (DSI)
  • PM
Midhat Nabil Ahmad Salimi (Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP)
  • Mammals
  • Biodiversity
  • Climate Change
  • Data Analysis
  • Ecosystems
  • Education
  • Environment
  • Genetics
  • History
  • Management
  • Medical
  • Molecular
  • Science
  • Technology
  • Water
  • Digital Sequence Information (DSI)
  • Living Modified Organism (LMO)
  • Synthetic Biology
  • Protected Areas
  • Marine & Coastal
  • Invasive Alien Species
  • PM
  • SEA
  • W
Mohd Tajuddin Abdullah (Prof. Dato' Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT)
  • Mammals
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Ecosystems
  • Evolution
  • Genetics
  • Protected Areas
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
Nasharuddin Bin Othman (Mr.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
  • Mammals (Ecology)
  • Conservation
  • Management
  • Protected Areas
  • PM
Rahimatsah Amat (Dr.)
Sabah Environmental Trust (SET)
  • Mammals (Ecology)
  • Environment
  • Management
  • Protected Areas
  • SEA
Rahmat Topani (Mr.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
  • Mammals (Ecology)
  • Conservation
  • Protected Areas
  • Marine & Coastal
  • PM
Rosli Hashim (Prof. Dr.)
University of Malaya (UM)
  • Birds (Ecology)
  • Mammals (Ecology)
  • Spiders
  • Insects
  • Biodiversity
  • Protected Areas
  • PM
  • W
Rosli Ramli (Assoc. Prof. Dr.)
University of Malaya (UM)
  • Mammals (Ecology)
  • Birds
  • Biodiversity
  • Digital Sequence Information (DSI)
  • Protected Areas
  • Marine & Coastal
  • PM
  • W
Saifullah A. Jaaman @ Sharman (Assoc. Prof.)
Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT)
  • Mammals
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Marine & Coastal
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
Tan Cheng Cheng (Ms.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
  • Mammals (Ecology)
  • Protected Areas
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
Tan Poai Ean (Ms.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
  • Bats
  • Mammals
  • Rodents
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Ecosystems
  • Management
  • PM
PM - Peninsular Malaysia; SBH - Sabah; SWK - Sarawak; SEA - Southeast Asia; W - World;

References

Article
  1. Azman, N.M., Abdul Latip, N.S., Shahrul Anuar, M.S., Mohd Abdul Muin, M.A., Shafie, N.J. & Khairuddin, N.L. (2011). Avian Diversity and Feeding Guilds in a Secondary Forest, an Oil Palm Plantation and a Paddy Field in Riparian Areas of the Kerian River Basin, Perak, Malaysia. Tropical Life Sciences Research (TSLR) 22 (2): pp. 45–64
  2. Scotson, L., Fredriksson, G., Ngoprasert, D., Wong, W-M & Fieberg, J. (2017). Projecting rangewide sun bear population trends using tree cover and camera-trap bycatch data. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  3. Magintan, D., Ilias, R., Ismail, A., Adrian, J., Rasdi, I. & Mohd. Sanusi, M. (2015). A Preliminary Observation of Mammals and Other Species Visiting Artificial Salt Licks in Peninsular Malaysia. Journal of Wildlife and Parks 30: pp. 59-74
  4. Hayward, M.W., Jedrzejewski, W. & Jedrzejewska, B. (2012). Prey preferences of the tiger Panthera tigris. Journal of Zoology 286 (3): pp. 221-231
  5. Rayan, D.M. & Linkie, M. (2015). Conserving tigers in Malaysia: A science-driven approach for eliciting conservation policy change. Biological Conservation 184: pp. 18-26
  6. Magintan, D., Mohamad Rufino, B.M., Cosmas, N. & Dennis, T.C.Y. (2009). Some evidences of Sumatran Rhinoceros presence in Temengor Forest Reserve, Perak. Journal of Wildlife and Parks 26: pp. 5-10
  7. Jambari, A., Abdul Halim, H.R., Saharudin, M.H., Seman, M.F., Samsuddin, S., Mohd Azmi, I.S., Mohamed, K.A. & Pazil, A.P. (2016). Play-Fighting Between Wild Female Malayan Tiger (Panthera Tigris ssp. Jacksoni) and Cub in Taman Negara National Park. Journal of Wildlife and Parks 31: pp. 67-70
  8. Moseley, M., Wyn, L.T. & Tshen, L.T. (2012). Fauna Reported from Batu Caves, Selangor, Malaysia: Annotated Checklist and Bibliography.. 39 (2): pp. 77-92
  9. Aihara, Y., Hosaka, T., Yasuda, M., Hashim, M. & Numata, S. (2016). Mammalian Wildlife Tourism in South-East Asian Tropical Rainforests: The Case of Endau Rompin National Park, Malaysia. Journal of Tropical Forest Science 28 (2): pp. 167-181
  10. Shahriza, S., Ibrahim, J., Shahrul Anuar, M.S. & Mohd Abdul Muin, M.A. (2012). Herpetofauna of Peta Area of Endau-Rompin National Park,Johor, Malaysia. Pertanika Journal of Tropical Agricultural Science 35 (3): pp. 553-567
  11. Shahfiz, M.A., Shahrul Anuar, M.S., Kaviarasu, M., Fauzi, M.Z. & Rizal, M.R. (2013). Preliminary Checklist of Mammals at Sungai Enam in Temengor Forest Reserve, Perak, Peninsular Malaysia. : pp. 197-214
  12. Kawanishi, K. & Sunquist, M.E. (2004). Conservation status of tigers in a primary rainforest of Peninsular Malaysia. Biological Conservation 120 (3): pp. 329-344
Book
  1. ASEAN Biodiversity Outlook 2, 2017. ASEAN Centre for Biodiversity, Philippines. pp. 220. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  2. Biodiversity in Malaysia, 2006. Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Malaysia. pp. 29. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  3. Biodiversity in Plantation Landscapes, 2012. Wild Asia and the Malaysian Palm Oil Council, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. pp. 130. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  4. National Policy on Biological Diversity 2016 - 2025, 2016. Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (NRE), Malaysia. pp. 87. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  5. National Tiger Action Plan for Malaysia, 2008. Department of Wildlife and National Parks Peninsular Malaysia. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  6. Red List of Mammals for Peninsular Malaysia: Red List Mamalia Semenanjung Malaysia, 2010. Department of Wildlife and National Parks (DWNP), Peninsular Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 150. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  7. Tourism and Visitor Management in Protected Areas: Guidelines for sustainability, 2018. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. pp. 128. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  8. USAID Wildlife Asia Counter Wildlife Trafficking Digest: Southeast Asia and China, Issue/No. 1, 2018. USAID Wildlife Asia, Bangkok, Thailand. pp. 39. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  9. Shaharuddin, M.I., Dahalan, H.T., Abdullah Sani, Shafie, Jalil, M.S., Faridah-Hanum, I. & Latiff, A. (2005). Taman Negeri Gunung Stong, Kelantan: Pengurusan, Persekitaran Fizikal, Biologi dan Sosio-ekonomi. Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 442.
  10. Shaharuddin, M.I., Che, H.H., Mohd. Puat, Dahalan, Jalil, M.S., Norhaidi, Y. & Latiff, A. (2005). Hutan Simpan Ulu Muda, Kedah: Pengurusan, Persekitaran Fizikal Dan Biologi. Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 310.
  11. Jain, A., Lee, J.G.H., Chao, N., Lees, C., Orenstein, R., Strange, B.C., Chng, S.C.L., Marthy, W., Yeap, C.A. & Rao, M. (2018). Helmeted Hornbill (Rhinoplax vigil): Status Review, Range-wide Conservation Strategy and Action Plan (2018-2027). IUCN SSC Hornbill Specialist Group. pp. 54. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  12. Sasekumar, A. & Chong, V.C. (2012). Mangrove and Coastal Environment of Selangor, Malaysia. Universiti Malaya, Malaysia. pp. 290.
  13. Khan, M.M. (1992). Mamalia Semenanjung Malaysia. Jabatan Perlindungan Hidupan Liar dan Taman Negara (PERHILITAN), Malaysia. pp. 182.
  14. Latiff, A., Maimon, A., Norhayati, A. & Jumaat, H.A. (2009). Bukit Fraser: Crown of the Titiwangsa Range. Penerbitan Pusat Penyelidikan Bukit Fraser, UKM, Bangi, Malaysia.
  15. Musa, S., Fletcher, C., Mohti, A., Parlan, I. & Harun, I. (2015). Grandeur Of The Tropical Rainforest In Peninsular Malaysia. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM) & Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Malaysia (NRE), Malaysia. pp. 204.
  16. Nik Mohd Maseri, Nik Mohamad (2009). Gunung Stong State Forest Park: A Guidebook. WWF-Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 24.
  17. Phillipps, Q. & Phillipps, K. (2016). Phillipps’ Guide to the Mammals of Borneo and their Ecology: Sabah, Sarawak, Brunei, and Kalimantan. Natural History Publications (Borneo), Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia. pp. 400.
  18. Mohammad, M.S., Zainon, K & Zulfadhlan, A.K. (2013). Proceedings of The 2nd Temengor Scientific Expedition 2012. Pulau Banding Foundation, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia. pp. 388.
  19. Nik Ahmad Irwan Izzauddin, N. H., Suhaila, A.H. & Zarul, H.H. (2019). Royal Belum-Temengor Rainforest : The Hidden Treasure of Perak. Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia and Kementerian Air, Tanah dan Sumber Asli. pp. 300.
Chapter in book
  1. Davison, G.W.H. & Akbar, Z. (2007). The Status of Mammalian Biodiversity in Malaysia. In Chua, L.S.L., Kirton, L.G. & Saw, L.G. (eds.) Status of Biological Diversity in Malaysia and Threat Assessment of Plant Species in Malaysia: Proceedings of the Seminar and Workshop, 28-30 June 2005. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM). pp. 3-27.
Pamphlet/Brochure
  1. MALAYAN TIGER — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
Unpublish
  1. Checklist of Biodiversity of Setiu (2019)

Acknowledgements :- Mr. Ahmad Amir Firdaus Bin Mad Apandi, Mr. Ahmad Hafizuddin Bin Rohim@rahim, Ms. Aida Salihah Binti Abu Bakar, Ms. Ainul Aqilah Binti Mohd Nasir, Ms. Ajla Rafidah Baharom, Ms. Aziemah Binti Kinan, Mr. Badrul Amin Bin Jaffar, Mr. Muhammad Farhan Bin Abd Wahab, Mrs. Noor Ashikin Binti Hj. Mohamad, Mrs. Noraina Bt Ab Majid, Ms. Norayuni Binti Ramlee, Ms. Norazah Binti Norddin, Ms. Nur Razan Faiqah Binti Zahili, Ms. Nurfarhana Hizan Binti Hijas, Ms. Nurul Aimi Amirah Binti Mohd Zaki, Mr. Rufino Baipura Bin Mohamad, Ms. Siti Zubaidah Binti Abdul Latif, Mr. Tan Kok Kiat & Mr. Yasser Mohamed Arifin

Citation :- Panthera tigris. Malaysia Biodiversity Information System (MyBIS). https://www.mybis.gov.my/sp/20269. Downloaded on 22 September 2019.

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