Native Animals

Panthera tigris

Malayan Tiger
EN
Endangered
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
ver 3.1, 2015
CR
Panthera tigris subsp. jacksoni Critically Endangered
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
ver 3.1, 2015
EN
Endangered
Red List of Mammals for Peninsular Malaysia
Peninsular Malaysia ver 3.1, 2009
QR Code
SSN 20269
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Taxonomy

Description

Tiger is a majestic and iconic species that usually serve as conservation flagships species.  This umbrella species can be identified with its reddish-orange body with black stripes. Tiger is also a national animal species for Malaysia, where two tigers are placed as the national emblems. In Malaysia, few tigers remain with insufficient areas to live, a limited number of wild prey and diverse yet unquantified threats. This species is classified as critically endangered (CR) based on the IUCN Red List and Red List of Mammals for Peninsular Malaysia (version 2.0) in 2017. Therefore, serious actions need to be taken to conserve the species and its habitat. 

There are eight species of cats from the Felidae family in Peninsular Malaysia. Of these, the tiger (Panthera tigris) is the largest species in the family. Malaysia is one of the 13 countries that still possess wild tigers, apart from Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Lao, Myanmar, Nepal, Russia, Thailand, and Vietnam, known as Tiger Range Countries (TRCs). Panthera tigris is the largest member of the family Felidacea and is split into nine subspecies. Three of the tiger subspecies became extinct, namely, the Bali tiger (Panthera tigris balica) in the 1940s, the Caspian tiger (Panthera tigris virgata) in the 1960s, and the Javan tiger (Panthera tigris sondaica) in the 1970s.

In general, tigers can grow up to 3 m in length and weigh up to 330 kg. Most tigers have a reddish-orange coat with vertical black stripes on their body that vary in size, length, and spacing. The tiger subspecies may look similar in the naked eye but there are actually some differences in terms of their skull shape, the number of teeth, size, colour and stripe pattern that can differentiate between them.

Panthera tigris jacksoni or more commonly known as the Malayan Tiger is found in Peninsular Malaysia except in the islands and does not exist in Sabah and Sarawak. In the year 2004, the Malayan Tiger was recognised as a new subspecies that is Panthera tigris jacksoni which is genetically distinct from tigers of northern Indochina, Panthera tigris corbetti. This subspecies is also the smallest subspecies with an average size of 2.4 m long and weighing 120 kg. Based on several records, an average body length of a female tiger in Peninsular Malaysia ranges between 1.77 m and 2.61 m, with an average of 2.03 m. However, the body length for male tigers ranges between 1.9 m and 2.84 m, with an average of 2.39 m. Male tigers were recorded to have a height of up to 1.14 m when they stood on four legs, while the female height reached 1.04 m. The average weight was recorded as 72.6 kg for body mass, while for a male was 91 kg. However, the heaviest male tiger that was weighed was 129 kg.

From the year 1995 to 2008, about 450 – 500 individuals of wild tigers were estimated in Peninsular Malaysia. In general, the tiger requires contiguous areas (>300 km2) of natural forest to survive and access to rivers. Tiger's movement covers a wide range regardless of the type of land cover. The Malayan Tiger usually lives in lowland forests but can also survive in a variety of habitats such as peat swamp forests, small bushes in forest plantations, and mountains. However, the home range of this mammal is not much known. Given that a male Bengal tiger in Nepal can have a territory of 50-100 km2, the Sumatran tiger in Sumatra has shown a home range of 116 km2. Then, it accepted that this species could range up to or above 100 km2 as 1-3 individuals.

Tiger is a prey-base species that requires enough prey to survive. Tiger's main diet consists of deer species (like barking deer, sambar deer, greater mouse deer, gaur and lesser mouse deer) and wild boars, and this species also feeds on other mammals species like primates and porcupines. Therefore, poaching wildlife that acts as prey for the species is one of the major threats to the tiger population in Peninsular Malaysia. 

Tigers are solitary animals except for their juveniles and during mating season. The tiger cub will live with its mother for up to two years while learning how to hunt, identifying hazards, and adapting to the wild. The Malayan Tiger is totally protected under the Wildlife Protection Act and is listed in the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) Appendix 1. 

Information written by Mohammad Shahfiz Azman, Noor Faradiana Md Fauzi and Ajla Rafidah Baharom

Habits

  Part Habit
 
Carnivore   —   The eating of animals
 
Nocturnal   —   Active during the night
 
Terrestrial   —   An animal that lives on/near the ground or a plant that grows on/in/from land

Assessment

Year Published Assessment Red List Category Version
2015 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Panthera tigris subsp. jacksoni
Critically Endangered (CR)
3.1
2015 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Endangered (EN)
3.1
2011 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Endangered (EN)
N/A
2010 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Endangered (EN)
N/A
2009 Red List of Mammals for Peninsular Malaysia
Endangered (EN)
Peninsular Malaysia
3.1
2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Panthera tigris subsp. jacksoni
Endangered (EN)
3.1
2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Endangered (EN)
N/A
2002 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Endangered (EN)
N/A
1996 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Endangered (EN)
N/A
1994 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Endangered (EN)
N/A
1990 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Endangered (EN)
N/A
1988 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Endangered (EN)
N/A
1986 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Endangered (EN)
N/A

Biodiversity Experts

Profile
Amy Then Yee Hui (Dr.)
University of Malaya (UM)
  • Fishes (Ecology)
  • Seahorses (Ecology)
  • Mammals (Ecology)
  • Protected Areas
  • Marine & Coastal
  • PM
  • W
Chong Ju Lian (Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT)
  • Mammals (Ecology)
  • Vascular (Ecology)
  • Invasive Alien Species
  • Protected Areas
  • Digital Sequence Information (DSI)
  • Marine & Coastal
  • Climate Change
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
  • W
David Magintan (Mr.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
  • Mammals
  • Elephants
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Environment
  • Protected Areas
  • PM
Faisal Ali Anwarali Khan (Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS)
  • Mammals
  • Bats
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Data Analysis
  • Evolution
  • Forest
  • Molecular
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
Farah Shafawati Mohd Taib (Dr.)
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM)
  • Birds
  • Mammals
  • Rodents
  • Treeshrews
  • Squirrels
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Data Analysis
  • Ecosystems
  • Taxonomy
  • PM
Jayaraj Vijaya Kumaran (Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Kelantan (UMK)
  • Mammals
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Genetics
  • Digital Sequence Information (DSI)
Jeffrine Rovie Ryan Japning (Mr.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
  • Monkeys
  • Fishes
  • Mammals
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Data Analysis
  • Evolution
  • Genetics
  • Molecular
  • Protected Areas
  • Science
  • Technology
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
Kayal Vizi Karuppannan (Mrs.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
  • Elephants
  • Fishes
  • Mammals
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Evolution
  • Genetics
  • Molecular
  • Protected Areas
  • Digital Sequence Information (DSI)
  • PM
Midhat Nabil Ahmad Salimi (Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP)
  • Mammals
  • Biodiversity
  • Climate Change
  • Data Analysis
  • Ecosystems
  • Education
  • Environment
  • Genetics
  • History
  • Management
  • Medical
  • Molecular
  • Science
  • Technology
  • Water
  • Digital Sequence Information (DSI)
  • Living Modified Organism (LMO)
  • Synthetic Biology
  • Protected Areas
  • Marine & Coastal
  • Invasive Alien Species
  • PM
  • SEA
  • W
Mohammad Shahfiz Azman (Mr.)
Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM)
  • Amphibians
  • Mammals
  • Birds
  • Awareness
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Ecosystems
  • Environment
  • Forest
  • Landscape
  • Law and Policy
  • Management
  • Protected Areas
  • Science
  • Systematics
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
Mohd Tajuddin Abdullah (Prof. Dato' Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT)
  • Mammals
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Ecosystems
  • Evolution
  • Genetics
  • Protected Areas
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
Nasharuddin Bin Othman (Mr.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
  • Mammals (Ecology)
  • Conservation
  • Management
  • Protected Areas
  • PM
Rahimatsah Amat (Dr.)
Sabah Environmental Trust (SET)
  • Mammals (Ecology)
  • Environment
  • Management
  • Protected Areas
  • SEA
Rahmat Topani (Mr.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
  • Mammals (Ecology)
  • Conservation
  • Protected Areas
  • Marine & Coastal
  • PM
Rosli Hashim (Prof. Dr.)
University of Malaya (UM)
  • Birds (Ecology)
  • Mammals (Ecology)
  • Spiders
  • Insects
  • Biodiversity
  • Protected Areas
  • PM
  • W
Rosli Ramli (Assoc. Prof. Dr.)
University of Malaya (UM)
  • Mammals (Ecology)
  • Birds
  • Biodiversity
  • Digital Sequence Information (DSI)
  • Protected Areas
  • Marine & Coastal
  • PM
  • W
Saifullah A. Jaaman @ Sharman (Assoc. Prof.)
Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT)
  • Mammals
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Marine & Coastal
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
Tan Cheng Cheng (Ms.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
  • Mammals (Ecology)
  • Protected Areas
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
Tan Poai Ean (Ms.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
  • Bats
  • Mammals
  • Rodents
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Ecosystems
  • Management
  • PM
PM - Peninsular Malaysia; SBH - Sabah; SWK - Sarawak; SEA - Southeast Asia; W - World;

References

Article
  1. Media Release: 4th Asia Ministerial Conference on Tiger Conservation 19 - 21 January 2022, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  2. Understanding and solving the South-East Asian snaring crisis. The Ecological Citizen 4 (2): pp. 129-141 — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  3. Aihara, Y., Hosaka, T., Yasuda, M., Hashim, M. & Numata, S. (2016). Mammalian Wildlife Tourism in South-East Asian Tropical Rainforests: The Case of Endau Rompin National Park, Malaysia. Journal of Tropical Forest Science 28 (2): pp. 167-181
  4. Azman, N.M., Abdul Latip, N.S., Shahrul Anuar, M.S., Mohd Abdul Muin, M.A., Shafie, N.J. & Khairuddin, N.L. (2011). Avian Diversity and Feeding Guilds in a Secondary Forest, an Oil Palm Plantation and a Paddy Field in Riparian Areas of the Kerian River Basin, Perak, Malaysia. Tropical Life Sciences Research (TSLR) 22 (2): pp. 45–64
  5. Shahfiz, M.A., Shahrul Anuar, M.S., Kaviarasu, M., Fauzi, M.Z. & Rizal, M.R. (2013). Preliminary Checklist of Mammals at Sungai Enam in Temengor Forest Reserve, Perak, Peninsular Malaysia. : pp. 197-214
  6. Scotson, L., Fredriksson, G., Ngoprasert, D., Wong, W-M & Fieberg, J. (2017). Projecting rangewide sun bear population trends using tree cover and camera-trap bycatch data. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  7. Hayward, M.W., Jedrzejewski, W. & Jedrzejewska, B. (2012). Prey preferences of the tiger Panthera tigris. Journal of Zoology 286 (3): pp. 221-231
  8. Kawanishi, K. & Sunquist, M.E. (2004). Conservation status of tigers in a primary rainforest of Peninsular Malaysia. Biological Conservation 120 (3): pp. 329-344
  9. Lynam, A.J., Laidlaw, R, Wan Shaharuddin, W.N, Sivananthan, T.E. & Bennett, E.L. (2007). Assessing the conservation status of the tiger Panthera tigris at priority sites in Peninsular Malaysia. Oryx 41 (4): pp. 454-462 — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  10. Rayan, D.M. & Linkie, M. (2015). Conserving tigers in Malaysia: A science-driven approach for eliciting conservation policy change. Biological Conservation 184: pp. 18-26
  11. Magintan, D., Mohamad Rufino, B.M., Cosmas, N. & Dennis, T.C.Y. (2009). Some evidences of Sumatran Rhinoceros presence in Temengor Forest Reserve, Perak. Journal of Wildlife and Parks 26: pp. 5-10
  12. Shahriza, S., Ibrahim, J., Shahrul Anuar, M.S. & Mohd Abdul Muin, M.A. (2012). Herpetofauna of Peta Area of Endau-Rompin National Park,Johor, Malaysia. Pertanika Journal of Tropical Agricultural Science 35 (3): pp. 553-567
  13. Jambari, A., Abdul Halim, H.R., Saharudin, M.H., Seman, M.F., Samsuddin, S., Mohd Azmi, I.S., Mohamed, K.A. & Pazil, A.P. (2016). Play-Fighting Between Wild Female Malayan Tiger (Panthera Tigris ssp. Jacksoni) and Cub in Taman Negara National Park. Journal of Wildlife and Parks 31: pp. 67-70
  14. Magintan, D., Ilias, R., Ismail, A., Adrian, J., Rasdi, I. & Mohd. Sanusi, M. (2015). A Preliminary Observation of Mammals and Other Species Visiting Artificial Salt Licks in Peninsular Malaysia. Journal of Wildlife and Parks 30: pp. 59-74
  15. Moseley, M., Wyn, L.T. & Tshen, L.T. (2012). Fauna Reported from Batu Caves, Selangor, Malaysia: Annotated Checklist and Bibliography. 39 (2): pp. 77-92
Book
  1. A visitor's guidebook to Endau-Rompin (Johor) National Park, 2019. Johor National Parks Corporation and UNDP Malaysia. pp. 108.
  2. ASEAN Biodiversity Outlook 2, 2017. ASEAN Centre for Biodiversity, Philippines. pp. 220. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  3. Biodiversity in Malaysia, 2006. Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Malaysia. pp. 29. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  4. Biodiversity in Plantation Landscapes, 2012. Wild Asia and the Malaysian Palm Oil Council, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. pp. 130. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  5. National Policy on Biological Diversity 2016 - 2025 / Dasar Kepelbagaian Biologi Kebangsaan 2016 - 2025, 2016. Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (NRE), Malaysia. pp. 112. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  6. National Tiger Action Plan for Malaysia, 2008. Department of Wildlife and National Parks Peninsular Malaysia. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  7. Red List of Mammals for Peninsular Malaysia: Red List Mamalia Semenanjung Malaysia, 2010. Department of Wildlife and National Parks (DWNP), Peninsular Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 150. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  8. Tourism and Visitor Management in Protected Areas: Guidelines for sustainability, 2018. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. pp. 128. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  9. USAID Wildlife Asia Counter Wildlife Trafficking Digest: Southeast Asia and China, Issue/No. 1, 2018. USAID Wildlife Asia, Bangkok, Thailand. pp. 39. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  10. USAID Wildlife Asia Counter Wildlife Trafficking Digest: Southeast Asia and China, Issue/No. 3, 2020. pp. 68. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  11. Beastall, C.A. & Chng, S.C.L. (2021). Identification of Commonly Traded Wildlife in Southeast Asia. TRAFFIC, Southeast Asia Regional Office, Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  12. Sasekumar, A. & Chong, V.C. (2012). Mangrove and Coastal Environment of Selangor, Malaysia. Universiti Malaya, Malaysia. pp. 290.
  13. Shaharuddin, M.I., Dahalan, H.T., Abdullah Sani, Shafie, Jalil, M.S., Faridah-Hanum, I. & Latiff, A. (2005). Taman Negeri Gunung Stong, Kelantan: Pengurusan, Persekitaran Fizikal, Biologi dan Sosio-ekonomi. Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 442.
  14. Wan Shaharuddin, W.N, Ibrahim, S.N, Sivananthan, T.E., Gopalakrishnan, L & Chik Wan Ab Rahman, C.K.M.Z (2020). Corridors of Life: Connecting Wildlife within the Central Forest Spine (CFS). Department of Wildlife and National Parks Peninsular Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur.
  15. Khan, M.M. (1992). Mamalia Semenanjung Malaysia. Jabatan Perlindungan Hidupan Liar dan Taman Negara (PERHILITAN), Malaysia. pp. 182.
  16. Latiff, A., Maimon, A., Norhayati, A. & Jumaat, H.A. (2009). Bukit Fraser: Crown of the Titiwangsa Range. Penerbitan Pusat Penyelidikan Bukit Fraser, UKM, Bangi, Malaysia.
  17. Shaharuddin, M.I., Che, H.H., Mohd. Puat, Dahalan, Jalil, M.S., Norhaidi, Y. & Latiff, A. (2005). Hutan Simpan Ulu Muda, Kedah: Pengurusan, Persekitaran Fizikal Dan Biologi. Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 310.
  18. Mohammad, M.S., Zainon, K & Zulfadhlan, A.K. (2013). Proceedings of The 2nd Temengor Scientific Expedition 2012. Pulau Banding Foundation, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia. pp. 388.
  19. Mohd Hizamri, M.Y, Grippin, A & Norhayati, A. (2021). Taman Negeri Rompin Pahang: A World of Wonders and Enchantments. Pahang State Forestry Department.
  20. Abd. Latif, M., Mohti, A., Musa, S. & Parlan, I. (2020). Malaysia's Tropical Rainforests - Splendour To Behold. Forest Research Institute Malaysia. pp. 212.
  21. Musa, S., Fletcher, C., Mohti, A., Parlan, I. & Harun, I. (2015). Grandeur Of The Tropical Rainforest In Peninsular Malaysia. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM) & Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Malaysia (NRE), Malaysia. pp. 204.
  22. Nik Mohd Maseri, Nik Mohamad (2009). Gunung Stong State Forest Park: A Guidebook. WWF-Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 24.
  23. Tan, P.E., Norazlinda, A.R., Nosrat, R. & Saaban, S. (2015). Field Guides - Identification Key for Non-Volant Terrestrial Mammals of Peninsular Malaysia. Department of Wildlife and National Parks (DWNP) Peninsular Malaysia. pp. 56.
  24. Phillipps, Q. & Phillipps, K. (2016). Phillipps’ Guide to the Mammals of Borneo and their Ecology: Sabah, Sarawak, Brunei, and Kalimantan. Natural History Publications (Borneo), Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia. pp. 400.
  25. Jain, A., Lee, J.G.H., Chao, N., Lees, C., Orenstein, R., Strange, B.C., Chng, S.C.L., Marthy, W., Yeap, C.A. & Rao, M. (2018). Helmeted Hornbill (Rhinoplax vigil): Status Review, Range-wide Conservation Strategy and Action Plan (2018-2027). IUCN SSC Hornbill Specialist Group. pp. 54. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  26. Nik Ahmad Irwan Izzauddin, N. H., Suhaila, A.H. & Zarul, H.H. (2019). Royal Belum-Temengor Rainforest : The Hidden Treasure of Perak. Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia and Kementerian Air, Tanah dan Sumber Asli. pp. 300.
Chapter in book
  1. Davison, G.W.H. & Akbar, Z. (2007). The Status of Mammalian Biodiversity in Malaysia. In Chua, L.S.L., Kirton, L.G. & Saw, L.G. (Eds.), Status of Biological Diversity in Malaysia and Threat Assessment of Plant Species in Malaysia: Proceedings of the Seminar and Workshop, 28-30 June 2005. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM). pp. 3-27.
Journal
  1. Malayan Nature Journal, Volume 73, Issue 3, p. 419, 2021
Magazine/Bulletin
  1. ASEAN Biodiversity Magazine, Vol. 14 (1), 1/2015. ASEAN Centre for Biodiversity — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  2. Identification of Commonly Traded Wildlife with a focus on the Golden Triangle (Lao PDR, Myanmar and Thailand) (2020). TRAFFIC, Southeast Asia Regional Office, Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  3. TRAFFIC Bulletin, Vol. 30 (1), 4/2018. TRAFFIC, Cambridge, UK — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  4. TRAFFIC Bulletin, Vol. 30 (2), 10/2018. TRAFFIC, UK — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  5. TRAFFIC Bulletin, Vol. 32 (2), 10/2020. TRAFFIC
  6. ASEAN Biodiversity Magazine, Vol. 13 (1), 1/2014. ASEAN Centre for Biodiversity — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  7. Conservation Malaysia (19), 2014. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Malaysia. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
Pamphlet/Brochure
  1. MALAYAN TIGER — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
Unpublish
  1. Checklist of Biodiversity of Setiu (2019)

Publications

Acknowledgements :- Mr. Abdul Razak Mohd Nor Rasid, Mr. Ahmad Amir Firdaus Bin Mad Apandi, Mr. Ahmad Hafizuddin Bin Rohim@rahim, Ms. Aida Salihah Binti Abu Bakar, Ms. Ainul Aqilah Binti Mohd Nasir, Ms. Ajla Rafidah Baharom, Mrs. Aziemah Binti Kinan, Mr. Badrul Amin Bin Jaffar, Mr. Muhammad Farhan Bin Abd Wahab, Mrs. Noor Ashikin Binti Hj. Mohamad, Mrs. Noraina Bt Ab Majid, Ms. Norayuni Binti Ramlee, Ms. Norazah Binti Norddin, Ms. Nur Razan Faiqah Binti Zahili, Ms. Nurfarhana Hizan Binti Hijas, Ms. Nurul Aimi Amirah Binti Mohd Zaki, Mr. Rufino Baipura Bin Mohamad, Ms. Siti Zubaidah Binti Abdul Latif, Mr. Tan Kok Kiat & Mr. Yasser Mohamed Arifin

Species Citation :- Panthera tigris. Malaysia Biodiversity Information System (MyBIS). Accessed via https://www.mybis.gov.my/sp/20269. [Retrieved 19 May 2022].

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