Native Animals

Nasalis larvatus

Proboscis Monkey
EN
Endangered
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
ver 3.1, 2008
QR Code
SSN 20277
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Taxonomy

The taxonomic status is pending for approval

Description

The proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus) is an iconic primate species found only on the Island of Borneo. Populations of this species are found in the Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak, the Indonesian province of Kalimantan, and Brunei. Throughout its range the proboscis monkey is also known by various local names such as kera belanda, monyet belanda, monyet probosis and orang belanda. In Sabah, proboscis monkey is known as bangkatan.

Proboscis monkeys have reddish-brown fur on the head, face, shoulders and upper back. Their fur on the lower back and stomach are grey, feet are yellowish-white while their throat and neck are white (Sjahfirdi & Noviandini, 2018). The tail is long (55-67 cm) and white or greyish in colour. The body length of adult male is about 56-72 cm with an average weight of 20 kg whereas adult female body length is about 55-62 cm and weight about 10 kg (Britannica, 2020; Sha et al., 2011). Adult males, especially dominant animals, have much larger and longer noses than females. Females have short pointy witch-like noses. Infants are born with small snubby noses and dark blue faces. Their noses gradually will develop into their signature larger noses and the dark blue face slowly turns greyish and then pink, like adults when they reach maturity (Sha et al., 2011).

Proboscis monkeys are threatened by the conversion of riparian and coastal mangrove habitats to plantations which may cause habitat fragmentation and consequently lead to a local extinction.

Habitats

No Description Suitability Seasonality
1
Forest → Mangrove Forest
Unknown Unknown
2
Forest → Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland Forest
Suitable Unknown
3
Forest → Subtropical/Tropical Swamp Forest
Unknown Resident
References : http://www.iucnredlist.org/technical-documents/classification-schemes/habitats-classification-scheme-ver3

Assessment

Year Published Assessment Red List Category Version
2021 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Endangered (EN)
Sabah & Sarawak
3.1
2020 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Endangered (EN)
Sabah & Sarawak
3.1
2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Endangered (EN)
3.1
2000 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Endangered (EN)
N/A
1996 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Vulnerable (VU)
2.3
1994 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Vulnerable (VU)
N/A
1990 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Vulnerable (VU)
N/A
1988 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Vulnerable (VU)
N/A
1986 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Vulnerable (VU)
N/A

Biodiversity Experts

Profile
Amy Then Yee Hui (Dr.)
University of Malaya (UM)
  • Fishes (Ecology)
  • Seahorses (Ecology)
  • Mammals (Ecology)
  • Protected Areas
  • Marine & Coastal
  • PM
  • W
Chong Ju Lian (Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT)
  • Mammals (Ecology)
  • Vascular (Ecology)
  • Invasive Alien Species
  • Protected Areas
  • Digital Sequence Information (DSI)
  • Marine & Coastal
  • Climate Change
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
  • W
David Magintan (Mr.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
  • Mammals
  • Elephants
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Environment
  • Protected Areas
  • PM
Faisal Ali Anwarali Khan (Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS)
  • Mammals
  • Bats
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Data Analysis
  • Evolution
  • Forest
  • Molecular
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
Farah Shafawati Mohd Taib (Dr.)
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM)
  • Birds
  • Mammals
  • Rodents
  • Treeshrews
  • Squirrels
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Data Analysis
  • Ecosystems
  • Taxonomy
  • PM
Jayaraj Vijaya Kumaran (Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Kelantan (UMK)
  • Mammals
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Genetics
  • Digital Sequence Information (DSI)
Jeffrine Rovie Ryan Japning (Mr.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
  • Monkeys
  • Fishes
  • Mammals
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Data Analysis
  • Evolution
  • Genetics
  • Molecular
  • Protected Areas
  • Science
  • Technology
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
Kayal Vizi Karuppannan (Mrs.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
  • Elephants
  • Fishes
  • Mammals
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Evolution
  • Genetics
  • Molecular
  • Protected Areas
  • Digital Sequence Information (DSI)
  • PM
Midhat Nabil Ahmad Salimi (Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP)
  • Mammals
  • Biodiversity
  • Climate Change
  • Data Analysis
  • Ecosystems
  • Education
  • Environment
  • Genetics
  • History
  • Management
  • Medical
  • Molecular
  • Science
  • Technology
  • Water
  • Digital Sequence Information (DSI)
  • Living Modified Organism (LMO)
  • Synthetic Biology
  • Protected Areas
  • Marine & Coastal
  • Invasive Alien Species
  • PM
  • SEA
  • W
Mohammad Shahfiz Azman (Mr.)
Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM)
  • Amphibians
  • Mammals
  • Birds
  • Awareness
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Ecosystems
  • Environment
  • Forest
  • Landscape
  • Law and Policy
  • Management
  • Protected Areas
  • Science
  • Systematics
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
Mohd Tajuddin Abdullah (Prof. Dato' Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT)
  • Mammals
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Ecosystems
  • Evolution
  • Genetics
  • Protected Areas
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
Nasharuddin Bin Othman (Mr.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
  • Mammals (Ecology)
  • Conservation
  • Management
  • Protected Areas
  • PM
Rahimatsah Amat (Dr.)
Sabah Environmental Trust (SET)
  • Mammals (Ecology)
  • Environment
  • Management
  • Protected Areas
  • SEA
Rahmat Topani (Mr.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
  • Mammals (Ecology)
  • Conservation
  • Protected Areas
  • Marine & Coastal
  • PM
Rosli Hashim (Prof. Dr.)
University of Malaya (UM)
  • Birds (Ecology)
  • Mammals (Ecology)
  • Spiders
  • Insects
  • Biodiversity
  • Protected Areas
  • PM
  • W
Rosli Ramli (Assoc. Prof. Dr.)
University of Malaya (UM)
  • Mammals (Ecology)
  • Birds
  • Biodiversity
  • Digital Sequence Information (DSI)
  • Protected Areas
  • Marine & Coastal
  • PM
  • W
Saifullah A. Jaaman @ Sharman (Assoc. Prof.)
Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT)
  • Mammals
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Marine & Coastal
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
Tan Cheng Cheng (Ms.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
  • Mammals (Ecology)
  • Protected Areas
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
Tan Poai Ean (Ms.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
  • Bats
  • Mammals
  • Rodents
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Ecosystems
  • Management
  • PM
PM - Peninsular Malaysia; SBH - Sabah; SWK - Sarawak; SEA - Southeast Asia; W - World;

References

Article
  1. Sjahfirdi, L. & Noviandini, D. (2018). Social and reproductive behaviour of proboscis monkey Nasalis larvatus (van Wurmb, 1787) at Taman Safari Bogor, West Java. Journal of Physics: Conference Series 1725, 012051.
  2. Suis, M.A.F., Miun, J., Tingkoi, L. & Nilus, R. (2019). Inventory of terrestrial mammals and birds in Sungai Pin Conservation Area, Kinabatangan. Sepilok Bulletin. 28: pp. 49-68
Book
  1. A Common Vision on Biodiversity in Government and the Development Process: Reference Document for Planners, Decision-Makers & Practitioners, Issue/No. , 2008. The Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Malaysia. pp. 111.
  2. Biodiversity in Malaysia, Issue/No. , 2006. Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Malaysia. pp. 29. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  3. Biodiversity in Plantation Landscapes, Issue/No. , 2012. Wild Asia and the Malaysian Palm Oil Council, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. pp. 130. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  4. Malaysian Naturalist, Volume 74, Issue/No. 4, 2021. Malaysian Nature Society, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. pp. 311.
  5. National Policy on Biological Diversity 2016 - 2025 / Dasar Kepelbagaian Biologi Kebangsaan 2016 - 2025, Issue/No. , 2016. Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (NRE), Malaysia. pp. 112. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  6. Abd. Latif, M., Mohti, A., Musa, S. & Parlan, I. (2020). Malaysia's Tropical Rainforests - Splendour To Behold, Issue/No. . Forest Research Institute Malaysia. pp. 212.
  7. Hambali, K & Wan Norazila, W.K (2019). Kera Ekor Panjang : Aspek Ekologi dan Kelakuan, Issue/No. . Penerbit UMK. pp. 88.
  8. Hazebroek, H.P., Adlin, T.Z. & Sinun, W. (2011). Danum Valley: The Rain Forest, Issue/No. . Natural History Publications (Borneo), Malaysia. pp. 615.
  9. Hutton, W. & Matunjau, C. (2010). Discovering The Wonders of The Klias Peninsula, Issue/No. . Sabah Forestry Department, Malaysia. pp. 44.
  10. Payne, J. & Francis, C.M. (1985). A Field Guide to the Mammals of Borneo, Issue/No. . The Sabah Society, Malaysia. pp. 326.
  11. Phillipps, Q. & Phillipps, K. (2016). Phillipps’ Guide to the Mammals of Borneo and their Ecology: Sabah, Sarawak, Brunei, and Kalimantan, Issue/No. . Natural History Publications (Borneo), Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia. pp. 400.
  12. Sasekumar, A. & Chong, V.C. (2012). Mangrove and Coastal Environment of Selangor, Malaysia, Issue/No. . Universiti Malaya, Malaysia. pp. 290.
  13. Sha, J.C.M., Matsuda, I. & Bernard, H. (2011). The Natural History of the Proboscis Monkey, Issue/No. . Natural History Publications (Borneo). pp. 126.
  14. Shaharuddin, M.I., Azahar, M., Razani, U., Kamaruzaman, A.B., Lim, K.L., Suhaili, R., Jalil, M.S. & Latiff, A. (2005). Sustainable Management of Matang Mangroves: 100 Years and Beyond, Issue/No. . Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 531.
  15. Tangah, J. & Chung, A.Y.C. (2021). Monyet Bangkatan Di Hutan Bakau Sabah, Issue/No. . Sabah Forestry Department. pp. 61.
Chapter in book
  1. Davison, G.W.H. & Akbar, Z. (2007). The Status of Mammalian Biodiversity in Malaysia. In Chua, L.S.L., Kirton, L.G. & Saw, L.G. (Eds.), Status of Biological Diversity in Malaysia and Threat Assessment of Plant Species in Malaysia: Proceedings of the Seminar and Workshop, 28-30 June 2005. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM). pp. 3-27.

Acknowledgements :- Mr. Ahmad Amir Firdaus Bin Mad Apandi, Ms. Aida Salihah Binti Abu Bakar, Ms. Ajla Rafidah Baharom, Ms. Amirah Hasanah Binti Mazlan, Mrs. Aziemah Binti Kinan, Ms. Noor Amira Aini Binti Noor Anwar, Mrs. Nur Hazwanie Binti Abd Halim, Ms. Nur Razan Faiqah Binti Zahili, Ms. Nurfadzilah Bt Azmi, Ms. Nurfarhana Hizan Binti Hijas, Mr. Tan Kok Kiat & Mr. Yasser Mohamed Arifin

Photo credit :- Muhammad Al Zahri

Species Citation :- Nasalis larvatus. Malaysia Biodiversity Information System (MyBIS). Accessed via https://www.mybis.gov.my/sp/20277. [Retrieved 25 June 2022].

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