Native Animals

Nycticebus coucang

Slow Loris
EN
Endangered
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Peninsular Malaysia ver 3.1, 2020
QR Code
SSN 20279
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Taxonomy

The taxonomic status is pending for approval

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Description

Nycticebus coucang commonly known as Sunda Slow Loris or Greater Slow Loris. It is also referred by local as Kera Duku or Kongkang. It is a mammal that constitutes Family Lorisidae and belongs to Order Primates (Francis, 2019). This species has been recorded in Indonesia (Sumatra); Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia); Singapore and Thailand (Nekaris et al., 2020; Roos et al., 2014). The subspecies, Nycticebus coucang insularis, has been rediscovered at Tioman Island (Rovie-Ryan et al., 2018).

The Sunda Slow Loris can be recognized by having grey-brown to reddish-brown pelage with a broad, darker-coloured stripe running down their back to the top of the head, which branches into four lines connecting to the eyes ears (Francis, 2019). It also possesses large eyes with a dark-coloured ring around each eye. The large eyes provide increased visual acuity to this mainly nocturnal primate. Moreover, it also has only stubs and hidden beneath the slow loris dense fur. Like other primates, it also has hand and feet that can grasp, digits with nails and both eyes on the front of the face (Francis, 2019). The range of head to body length of the Sunda Slow Loris is around 26-30 cm and can attain weights ranging from 375 grams to 900 grams (Francis, 2019).

Habits

  Part Habit
 
Nocturnal   —   Active during the night

Habitats

No Description Suitability Seasonality
1
Artificial - Terrestrial → Plantations
Suitable Unknown
2
Artificial - Terrestrial → Rural Gardens
Suitable Unknown
3
Forest → Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland Forest
Suitable Unknown
References : http://www.iucnredlist.org/technical-documents/classification-schemes/habitats-classification-scheme-ver3

Assessment

Year Published Assessment Red List Category Version
2020 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Endangered (EN)
Peninsular Malaysia
3.1
2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Vulnerable (VU)
3.1
2000 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Least Concern (LC)
N/A

Biodiversity Experts

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Amy Then Yee Hui (Dr.)
University of Malaya (UM)
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Chong Ju Lian (Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT)
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David Magintan (Mr.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
  • Mammals
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Faisal Ali Anwarali Khan (Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS)
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Farah Shafawati Mohd Taib (Dr.)
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM)
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Jayaraj Vijaya Kumaran (Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Kelantan (UMK)
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Jeffrine Rovie Ryan Japning (Mr.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
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Kayal Vizi Karuppannan (Mrs.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
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Midhat Nabil Ahmad Salimi (Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP)
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Mohammad Shahfiz Azman (Mr.)
Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM)
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Mohd Tajuddin Abdullah (Prof. Dato' Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT)
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Nasharuddin Bin Othman (Mr.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
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Rahimatsah Amat (Dr.)
Sabah Environmental Trust (SET)
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Rahmat Topani (Mr.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
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Rosli Hashim (Prof. Dr.)
University of Malaya (UM)
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Rosli Ramli (Assoc. Prof. Dr.)
University of Malaya (UM)
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Saifullah A. Jaaman @ Sharman (Assoc. Prof.)
Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT)
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Tan Cheng Cheng (Ms.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
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Tan Poai Ean (Ms.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
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PM - Peninsular Malaysia; SBH - Sabah; SWK - Sarawak; SEA - Southeast Asia; W - World;

References

Article
  1. Grow, N.B. & Nekaris, K.A.I. (2015). Does toxic defence in Nycticebus spp. relate to ectoparasites? The lethal effects of slow loris venom on arthropods. Toxicon. 95, 1-5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2014.12.005
  2. Aihara, Y., Hosaka, T., Yasuda, M., Hashim, M. & Numata, S. (2016). Mammalian Wildlife Tourism in South-East Asian Tropical Rainforests: The Case of Endau Rompin National Park, Malaysia. Journal of Tropical Forest Science 28 (2), 167-181
  3. Inoue, F., Inoue, A., Tsuboi, T., Ichikawa, T., Suga, M., Ishihara, S. & Nakayama, S. (2021). Severe Anaphylactic Shock Following a Slow Loris Bite in a Patient with Cat Allergy. Intern Med . 60, 3037-3039. https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/internalmedicine/advpub/0/advpub_6775-20/_pdf
  4. Lim, B.L. (1970). Experimental Infection of Primitive Primates and Monkeys with Angiostrongylus cantonensis. The Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine & Public Health 1 (3), 361-365
  5. Lim, B.L. (1972). Host-Relationships and Seasonal Abundance of Immature Ticks (Haemaphysalis spp. and Dermacentor spp.) in Primary and Mixed-Secondary Rainforests in West Malaysia. The Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine & Public Health 3 (4), 605-612. http://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search.do?recordID=US201303244941
  6. Lim, B.L., Lim, K.K.P. & Yong, H.S. (1999). The Terrestrial Mammals of Pulau Tioman, Peninsular Malaysia, with a catalogue of Specimens at the Raffles Museum, National University of Singapore. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Supplements (6), 101-123
  7. Norshaqinah, A., Muzneena, A.M., Senawi, J. & Norhayati, A. (2018). Distribution and abundance of vertebrate animal road-kills on Pulau Langkawi, Kedah, Peninsular Malaysia. Malayan Nature Journal. , 9
  8. Shahfiz, M.A., Shahrul Anuar, M.S., Kaviarasu, M., Fauzi, M.Z. & Rizal, M.R. (2013). Preliminary Checklist of Mammals at Sungai Enam in Temengor Forest Reserve, Perak, Peninsular Malaysia. , 197-214
  9. Syakirah, S., Prentice, C., Lopez, A., Azmin, M. R. & Yusof, A. M. (2000). A small- mammal survey at Tasek Bera, Pahang, Malaysia's first Ramsar Site. Malayan Nature Journal 54 (1), 31-41
  10. Utami, S.S. & Van Hooff, J.A.R.A.M. (1997). Meat-eating by adult female Sumatran orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus abelii). Am. J. Primatol . 43, 159-165. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1098-2345(1997)43:2<159::AID-AJP5>3.0.CO;2-W
  11. Utap, M.S. & Mohd Jamal, M.S. (2019). Anaphylactic shock following a bite of a wild Kayan slow loris (Nycticebus kayan) in rural Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. Rural and Remote Health. 19, 5163. https://www.rrh.org.au/journal/article/5163
  12. Weinstein, S.A., White, J., Keyler, D.E. & Kardong, K.V. (2013). Response to Jackson et al. (2012). Toxicon. 64, 116-127. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2012.11.005
  13. Wilde, H. (1972). Anaphylactic shock following bite by a ‘slow loris’, Nycticebus coucang. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 21 (5), 592-594. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.924.8955&rep=rep1&type=pdf
Book
  1. A visitor's guidebook to Endau-Rompin (Johor) National Park, 2019. Johor National Parks Corporation and UNDP Malaysia. pp. 108.
  2. The Network of Protected Forests in Telupid, Sabah: Biodiversity & Conservation in the Heart of Borneo, 2014. Sabah Forestry Department, Sabah, Malaysia. pp. 155.
  3. Abdul Rahman, A.R., Mohd Nasir, A.H., Mohamed Zin, Y., Richard, A.M. & Latiff, A. (2013). Banjaran Bintang Gunung Inas, Kedah: Pengurusan Hutan, Persekitaran Fizikal dan Kepelbagaian Biologi. Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 245.
  4. Abdul Rahman, A.R., Koh, H.L., Muhamad, A., Wan Yusof, W.K. & Latiff, A. (2011). Hutan Simpan Melaka: Pengurusan Hutan, Persekitaran Fizikal, Kepelbagaian Biologi dan Socio-ekonomi. Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 315.
  5. Beastall, C.A. & Chng, S.C.L. (2021). Identification of Commonly Traded Wildlife in Southeast Asia. TRAFFIC, Southeast Asia Regional Office, Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  6. Faridah, M., Ibrahim, Y.S., Nursalwa, B., Abd Rahman Azmi, A.A. & Borkhanuddin, M.H. (2017). Invertebrates of Setiu Wetlands. Penerbit UMT, Malaysia. pp. 1-209.
  7. Hambali, K & Wan Norazila, W.K (2019). Kera Ekor Panjang : Aspek Ekologi dan Kelakuan. Penerbit UMK. pp. 88.
  8. Hasdi, Hassan (2008). Rezab Hidupan Liar Sungai Dusun: Inspirasi Rimba Alam. Jabatan Perlindungan Hidupan Liar dan Taman Negara (PERHILITAN), Malaysia. pp. 74.
  9. Hazebroek, H.P., Adlin, T.Z. & Sinun, W. (2011). Danum Valley: The Rain Forest. Natural History Publications (Borneo), Malaysia. pp. 615.
  10. Khan, M.M. (1992). Mamalia Semenanjung Malaysia. Jabatan Perlindungan Hidupan Liar dan Taman Negara (PERHILITAN), Malaysia. pp. 182.
  11. Mohammad, M.S., Zainon, K & Zulfadhlan, A.K. (2013). Proceedings of The 2nd Temengor Scientific Expedition 2012. Pulau Banding Foundation, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia. pp. 388.
  12. Mohammad Khairi, A (2007). Taman Negara Pulau Pinang: Sinar Mutiara Belantara. Jabatan Perlindungan Hidupan Liar dan Taman Negara, Malaysia. pp. 112.
  13. Nee, T. A. & Norhayati, N. (2018). Compendium of Facts and Figures. 3rd Edition, Volume 3. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Malaysia. pp. 174.
  14. Payne, J. & Francis, C.M. (1985). A Field Guide to the Mammals of Borneo. The Sabah Society, Malaysia. pp. 326.
  15. Phillipps, Q. & Phillipps, K. (2016). Phillipps’ Guide to the Mammals of Borneo and their Ecology: Sabah, Sarawak, Brunei, and Kalimantan. Natural History Publications (Borneo), Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia. pp. 400.
  16. Praveena, B.K. & Maria Arlene, J.A.S. (2013). Compendium of Facts and Figures. 2nd Edition. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Malaysia. pp. 161.
  17. Ratnam, L. (1995). Windows on The Forest: Glimpses of FRIM for the Nature Loving Visitor, Issue/No. 1. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Malaysia. pp. 143.
  18. Shaharuddin, M.I., Dahalan, H.T., Abdullah Sani, Shafie, Jalil, M.S., Faridah-Hanum, I. & Latiff, A. (2005). Taman Negeri Gunung Stong, Kelantan: Pengurusan, Persekitaran Fizikal, Biologi dan Sosio-ekonomi. Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 442.
  19. T. Marina, T. Ibrahim & Shamsul, K. (2009). Kepelbagaian Biologi Flora, Fauna dan Nilai Ekonomi Hutan Simpan Tranum, Pahang. Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 140.
  20. Tan, P.E., Norazlinda, A.R., Nosrat, R. & Saaban, S. (2015). Field Guides - Identification Key for Non-Volant Terrestrial Mammals of Peninsular Malaysia. Department of Wildlife and National Parks (DWNP) Peninsular Malaysia. pp. 56.
Chapter in book
  1. Davison, G.W.H. & Akbar, Z. (2007). The Status of Mammalian Biodiversity in Malaysia. In Chua, L.S.L., Kirton, L.G. & Saw, L.G. (Eds.), Status of Biological Diversity in Malaysia and Threat Assessment of Plant Species in Malaysia: Proceedings of the Seminar and Workshop, 28-30 June 2005. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM). pp. 3-27.
  2. Hagey, L.R., Fry, B.G. & Fitch-Snyder, H. (2007). Talking Defensively: A Dual Use for the Brachial Gland Exudate of Slow and Pygmy lorises. In Gursky, S.L. & Nekaris, K.A.I. (Eds.), Primate Anti-Predator Strategies. Springer, Boston, MA. pp. 253-272.
  3. Lim, B.L., Ratnam, L. & Hussien, N. A. (2003). Small Mammals Diversity in Pasoh Forest Reserve, Negeri Sembilan, Peninsular Malaysia. In Okuda, T., Manokaran, N. & Ashton, P.S. (Eds.), Pasoh: Ecology of a Lowland Rain Forest in Southeast Asia. Springer Tokyo. pp. 403-411.
Journal
  1. Asian Primates Journal, Volume 4, Issue 2, p. 60, 2014
  2. Asian Primates Journal, Volume 5, Issue 1, p. 48, 2015
  3. Malayan Nature Journal, Volume 73, Issue 3, p. 419, 2021
Magazine/Bulletin
  1. Bio-Bulletin, Vol. 1 (June 2017). School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  2. Bio-Bulletin, Vol. 2 (December 2015). School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  3. Identification of Commonly Traded Wildlife with a focus on the Golden Triangle (Lao PDR, Myanmar and Thailand) (2020). TRAFFIC, Southeast Asia Regional Office, Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
Unpublish
  1. Checklist of Biodiversity of Setiu (2019)

Acknowledgements :- Mr. Abdul Razak Mohd Nor Rasid, Mr. Ahmad Amir Firdaus Bin Mad Apandi, Ms. Aida Salihah Binti Abu Bakar, Ms. Ainul Aqilah Binti Mohd Nasir, Ms. Ajla Rafidah Baharom, Mrs. Aziemah Binti Kinan, Mr. Badrul Amin Bin Jaffar, Ms. Fatin Qurratul 'ain Binti Saberam, Mr. Kalip Bin Matkasim, Dr. Muhammad Farhan Bin Abd Wahab, Ms. Noor Amira Aini Binti Noor Anwar, Mrs. Noraina Bt Ab Majid, Ms. Norayuni Binti Ramlee, Ms. Norazah Binti Norddin, Mrs. Nur Hazwanie Binti Abd Halim, Ms. Nurfadzilah Bt Azmi, Ms. Nurfarhana Hizan Binti Hijas, Ms. Nurul Aimi Amirah Binti Mohd Zaki, Mr. Tan Kok Kiat, Ms. Umairah Binti Ishak & Mr. Yasser Mohamed Arifin

Photo credit :- Lee Zi Shang & Rosnizam, R.

Species Citation :- Nycticebus coucang. Malaysia Biodiversity Information System (MyBIS). Accessed via https://www.mybis.gov.my/sp/20279. [Retrieved 30 November 2022].

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