Native Animals

Pongo pygmaeus

Bornean Orangutan
CR
Critically Endangered
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
ver 3.1, 2016
CR
Pongo pygmaeus subsp. morio Critically Endangered
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
ver 3.1, 2016
CR
Pongo pygmaeus subsp. pygmaeus Critically Endangered
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Sarawak ver 3.1, 2016
QR Code
SSN 20345
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Taxonomy

The taxanomic status is pending for approval

Gallery  

Juvenile
Adult (Female)
Adult (Male)
Adult (Male)
Adult (Male)
Adult (Male)
Adult (Male)

Description

Pongo pygmaeus, more commonly known as orangutan, is a large arboreal animal that is native to the island of Borneo. Orangutan means people of the jungle. There is only one genus of great apes native and extant in Asia; this consists of the Bornean orangutan and Sumatran orangutan, Pongo abelii (WWF, 2016).

They have a long coat of dark hair on the back, a facial disk, flanges and a throat sac used for long vocalisations (Acrenaz et al., 2008). The long vocalisations are used to attract receptive females (Knott et al., 2010). In addition, these males are quite bigoted and likely to be aggressive when they encounter other adult males. In contrast, the subordinate unflanged males do not possess these secondary sexual characteristics and they are almost the same size as the adult female (Acrenaz et al., 2008).

Most orangutan inhabit peat swamp forests, but most of their habitats are outside protected areas. They are highly patchy throughout Borneo Island as large canopy gaps hinder their movement.The number of orangutan present in Sabah is only about 11000 out of a total of 54000 in Borneo and is now declining.

Habits

  Part Habit
 
Arboreal   —   Spend the majority of their lives in trees.

Habitats

No Description Suitability Seasonality
1
Forest → Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland Forest
Suitable Resident
References : http://www.iucnredlist.org/technical-documents/classification-schemes/habitats-classification-scheme-ver3

Assessment

Year Published Assessment Red List Category Version
2016 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Pongo pygmaeus subsp. pygmaeus
Critically Endangered (CR)
Sarawak
3.1
2016 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Pongo pygmaeus subsp. morio
Critically Endangered (CR)
3.1
2016 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Critically Endangered (CR)
3.1
2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Endangered (EN)
3.1
2007 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Pongo pygmaeus subsp. morio
Endangered (EN)
N/A
2000 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Endangered (EN)
N/A
1996 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Vulnerable (VU)
N/A
1994 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Endangered (EN)
N/A
1990 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Endangered (EN)
N/A
1988 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Endangered (EN)
N/A
1986 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Endangered (EN)
N/A

Specimen

Collection Center   Total
3

Biodiversity Experts

Profile
Chong Ju Lian (Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT)
  • Mammals (Ecology)
  • Vascular (Ecology)
  • Invasive Alien Species
  • Protected Areas
  • Digital Sequence Information (DSI)
  • Marine & Coastal
  • Climate Change
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
  • W
David Magintan (Mr.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
  • Mammals
  • Elephants
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Environment
  • Protected Areas
  • PM
Faisal Ali Anwarali Khan (Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS)
  • Mammals
  • Bats
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Data Analysis
  • Evolution
  • Forest
  • Molecular
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
Farah Shafawati Mohd Taib (Dr.)
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM)
  • Birds
  • Mammals
  • Rodents
  • Treeshrews
  • Squirrels
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Data Analysis
  • Ecosystems
  • Taxonomy
  • PM
Jayaraj Vijaya Kumaran (Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Kelantan (UMK)
  • Mammals
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Genetics
  • Digital Sequence Information (DSI)
Jeffrine Rovie Ryan Japning (Mr.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
  • Monkeys
  • Fishes
  • Mammals
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Data Analysis
  • Evolution
  • Genetics
  • Molecular
  • Protected Areas
  • Science
  • Technology
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
Kayal Vizi Karuppannan (Mrs.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
  • Elephants
  • Fishes
  • Mammals
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Evolution
  • Genetics
  • Molecular
  • Protected Areas
  • Digital Sequence Information (DSI)
  • PM
Midhat Nabil Ahmad Salimi (Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP)
  • Mammals
  • Biodiversity
  • Climate Change
  • Data Analysis
  • Ecosystems
  • Education
  • Environment
  • Genetics
  • History
  • Management
  • Medical
  • Molecular
  • Science
  • Technology
  • Water
  • Digital Sequence Information (DSI)
  • Living Modified Organism (LMO)
  • Synthetic Biology
  • Protected Areas
  • Marine & Coastal
  • Invasive Alien Species
  • PM
  • SEA
  • W
Mohammad Shahfiz Azman (Mr.)
Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM)
  • Amphibians
  • Mammals
  • Birds
  • Awareness
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Ecosystems
  • Environment
  • Forest
  • Landscape
  • Law and Policy
  • Management
  • Protected Areas
  • Science
  • Systematics
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
Mohd Tajuddin Abdullah (Prof. Dato' Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT)
  • Mammals
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Ecosystems
  • Evolution
  • Genetics
  • Protected Areas
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
Nasharuddin Bin Othman (Mr.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
  • Mammals (Ecology)
  • Conservation
  • Management
  • Protected Areas
  • PM
Rahimatsah Amat (Dr.)
Sabah Environmental Trust (SET)
  • Mammals (Ecology)
  • Environment
  • Management
  • Protected Areas
  • SEA
Rahmat Topani (Mr.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
  • Mammals (Ecology)
  • Conservation
  • Protected Areas
  • Marine & Coastal
  • PM
Rosli Hashim (Prof. Dr.)
University of Malaya (UM)
  • Birds (Ecology)
  • Mammals (Ecology)
  • Spiders
  • Insects
  • Biodiversity
  • Protected Areas
  • PM
  • W
Rosli Ramli (Assoc. Prof. Dr.)
University of Malaya (UM)
  • Mammals (Ecology)
  • Birds
  • Biodiversity
  • Digital Sequence Information (DSI)
  • Protected Areas
  • Marine & Coastal
  • PM
  • W
Saifullah A. Jaaman @ Sharman (Assoc. Prof.)
Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT)
  • Mammals
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Marine & Coastal
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
Tan Cheng Cheng (Ms.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
  • Mammals (Ecology)
  • Protected Areas
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
Tan Poai Ean (Ms.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
  • Bats
  • Mammals
  • Rodents
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Ecosystems
  • Management
  • PM
PM - Peninsular Malaysia; SBH - Sabah; SWK - Sarawak; SEA - Southeast Asia; W - World;

References

Article
  1. Simon, D., Davies, G. & Ancrenaz, M. (2019). Changes to Sabah’s orangutan population in recent times: 2002–2017. PLOS ONE 14 (7): pp. e0218819 — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  2. Scotson, L., Fredriksson, G., Ngoprasert, D., Wong, W-M & Fieberg, J. (2017). Projecting rangewide sun bear population trends using tree cover and camera-trap bycatch data. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  3. Matsubayashi, H., Lagan, P., Majalap-Lee, N., Tangah, J., Abd. Shukor, J.R. & Kitayama, K. (2007). Importance of natural licks for the mammals in Bornean inland tropical rain forests. Ecoological Research 22 (5): pp. 742-748
  4. Suis, M.A.F., Miun, J., Tingkoi, L. & Nilus, R. (2019). Inventory of terrestrial mammals and birds in Sungai Pin Conservation Area, Kinabatangan. Sepilok Bulletin. 28: pp. 49-68
  5. Nakashima, Y., Lagan, P. & Kitayama, K. (2007). A Study of Fruit–Frugivore Interactions in Two Species of Durian (Durio, Bombacaceae) in Sabah, Malaysia. 40 (2): pp. 255–258
  6. Jones, J.H., Meijaard, E., Welsh, A., Ancrenaz, M., Wich, S., Nijman, V. & Marshall, A.J. (2010). Declining Orangutan Encounter Rates from Wallace to the Present Suggest the Species Was Once More Abundant. PLOS ONE 5 (8): pp. e12042
Book
  1. ASEAN Biodiversity Outlook 2, 2017. ASEAN Centre for Biodiversity, Philippines. pp. 220. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  2. Biodiversity in Malaysia, 2006. Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Malaysia. pp. 29. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  3. Dasar Kepelbagaian Biologi Kebangsaan  1998 - National Policy on Biological Diversity (NPBD 1998), 1998. Kementerian Sains, Teknologi dan Alam Sekitar, Malaysia. pp. 38.
  4. The Network of Protected Forests in Telupid, Sabah: Biodiversity & Conservation in the Heart of Borneo, 2014. Sabah Forestry Department, Sabah, Malaysia. pp. 155.
  5. Payne, J. & Francis, C.M. (1985). A Field Guide to the Mammals of Borneo. The Sabah Society, Malaysia. pp. 326.
  6. Phillipps, Q. & Phillipps, K. (2016). Phillipps’ Guide to the Mammals of Borneo and their Ecology: Sabah, Sarawak, Brunei, and Kalimantan. Natural History Publications (Borneo), Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia. pp. 400.
  7. Hazebroek, H.P., Adlin, T.Z. & Sinun, W. (2011). Danum Valley: The Rain Forest. Natural History Publications (Borneo), Malaysia. pp. 615.
  8. Hambali, K & Wan Norazila, W.K (2019). Kera Ekor Panjang : Aspek Ekologi dan Kelakuan. Penerbit UMK. pp. 88.
Chapter in book
  1. Davison, G.W.H. & Akbar, Z. (2007). The Status of Mammalian Biodiversity in Malaysia. In Chua, L.S.L., Kirton, L.G. & Saw, L.G. (Eds.), Status of Biological Diversity in Malaysia and Threat Assessment of Plant Species in Malaysia: Proceedings of the Seminar and Workshop, 28-30 June 2005. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM). pp. 3-27.
Journal
  1. Asian Primates Journal, Volume 3, Issue 1, p. 36, 2013
  2. Asian Primates Journal, Volume 5, Issue 1, p. 48, 2015
Report
  1. 5th National Report to Convention on Biological Diversity. Ministry of Natural Resource and Environment, Malaysia. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  2. Wich, S., Struebig, M., Refisch, J., Wilting, A., Kramer-Schadt, S. & Meijaard, E. (2015). Masa Depan Orangutan Borneo: Dampak perubahan tutupan lahan dan iklim. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).

Acknowledgements :- Mr. Abdul Razak Mohd Nor Rasid, Ms. Aida Salihah Binti Abu Bakar, Ms. Ajla Rafidah Baharom, Mrs. Aziemah Binti Kinan, Mr. Muhammad Farhan Bin Abd Wahab, Ms. Noor Amira Aini Binti Noor Anwar, Mrs. Nur Hazwanie Binti Abd Halim, Ms. Nurfadzilah Bt Azmi, Ms. Nurfarhana Hizan Binti Hijas, Mr. Tan Kok Kiat & Mr. Yasser Mohamed Arifin

Citation :- Pongo pygmaeus. Malaysia Biodiversity Information System (MyBIS). https://www.mybis.gov.my/sp/20345. Downloaded on 29 November 2020.

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