Native Animals

Buceros bicornis

Great Hornbill
VU
Vulnerable
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
ver 3.1, 2020
QR Code
SSN 20943
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Taxonomy

Description

One of the larger members of the hornbill family, Buceros bicornis known commonly as Great hornbill is usually seen in small numbers and are found in the forest from lowlands to 1,500 m above sea level.

The males and females are similar except that the irises of males are red while those of females are white (Jeyarajasingam & Pearson, 2012). The male has black and white plumage with some white parts washed yellow. This is due to the oily exudation produced by the uropygial gland when the bird is preening. It rubs its head against the gland situated at the upper base of the tail and transfers this oil to its plumage.

Generally, they feed on fruits, but they also feed on small mammals, birds, small reptiles, and insects. The biggest threat to this species is habitat destruction, and particularly the removal of the old-growth trees that these birds require for nesting (IUCN, 2017).

Habitats

No Description Suitability Seasonality
1
Forest → Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland Forest
Suitable Resident
2
Forest → Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane Forest
Suitable Resident
References : http://www.iucnredlist.org/technical-documents/classification-schemes/habitats-classification-scheme-ver3

Assessment

Year Published Assessment Red List Category Version
2020 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Vulnerable (VU)
3.1
2018 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Vulnerable (VU)
3.1
2017 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Near Threatened (NT)
3.1
2016 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Near Threatened (NT)
N/A
2015 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Near Threatened (NT)
3.1
2013 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Near Threatened (NT)
N/A
2012 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Near Threatened (NT)
N/A
2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Near Threatened (NT)
N/A
2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Near Threatened (NT)
N/A
2000 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Near Threatened (NT)
N/A
1994 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Least Concern (LC)
N/A
1988 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Least Concern (LC)
N/A

Biodiversity Experts

Profile
Abdul Rahman (Mr.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
  • Birds
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Ecosystems
  • Environment
  • Forest
  • Protected Areas
  • Wildlife Trade
  • PM
Azmi Mat Ali (Mr.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
  • Birds (Taxonomy)
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Wildlife Trade
  • PM
Farah Shafawati Mohd Taib (Dr.)
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM)
  • Birds
  • Mammals
  • Rodents
  • Treeshrews
  • Squirrels
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Data Analysis
  • Ecosystems
  • Taxonomy
  • PM
Ismail Bin Hj. Mamat (Mr.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
  • Birds
  • Biodiversity
  • Protected Areas
  • Invasive Alien Species
  • PM
Meor Amran Bin Meor Zulkifilee (Mr.)
Birdgroup Taman Negara (BGTN)
  • Birds
  • Business
  • Environment
  • Forest
  • Management
  • Tourism
  • PM
Mohammad Shahfiz Azman (Mr.)
Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM)
  • Amphibians
  • Mammals
  • Birds
  • Amphibians
  • Reptiles
  • Awareness
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Ecosystems
  • Environment
  • Forest
  • Landscape
  • Law and Policy
  • Management
  • Protected Areas
  • Science
  • Systematics
  • Invasive Alien Species
  • Like-Minded Megadiverse Countries (LMMC)
  • National Policy on Biological Diversity
  • Policy
  • Research and Development (R&D)
  • Zoonotic
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
Mohd Abdul Muin Bin Md Akil (Mr.)
Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM)
  • Amphibians
  • Birds
  • Reptiles
  • Snakes
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Evolution
  • Genetics
  • Molecular
  • Protected Areas
  • Climate Change
  • Invasive Alien Species
Rahmah Binti Ilias (Mrs.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
  • Birds
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Protected Areas
  • Invasive Alien Species
  • PM
Rosli Hashim (Prof. Dr.)
University of Malaya (UM)
  • Birds (Ecology)
  • Mammals (Ecology)
  • Spiders
  • Insects
  • Biodiversity
  • Protected Areas
  • PM
  • W
Rosli Ramli (Assoc. Prof. Dr.)
University of Malaya (UM)
  • Mammals (Ecology)
  • Birds
  • Biodiversity
  • Digital Sequence Information (DSI)
  • Protected Areas
  • Marine & Coastal
  • PM
  • W
Syaizwan Zahmir Zulkifli (Dr.)
Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM)
  • Birds (Ecology)
  • Fishes (Ecology)
  • Molluscs (Ecology)
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Ecosystems
  • Marine & Coastal
  • Water
Yeap Chin Aik (Mr.)
Malaysian Nature Society (MNS)
  • Birds (Ecology)
  • Awareness
  • Biodiversity
  • Biological Resource
  • Conservation
  • Ecosystems
  • Education
  • Forest
  • Landscape
  • Management
  • Protected Areas
  • Traditional Knowledge (TK)
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
PM - Peninsular Malaysia; SBH - Sabah; SWK - Sarawak; SEA - Southeast Asia; W - World;

References

Book
  1. Hornbills in the City: A Conservation Approach to Hornbill Study in Singapore, 2012. National Parks Board, Singapore. pp. 222.
  2. MNS Bird Conservation Council. 2015. A Checklist of the Birds of Malaysia Second Edition. Kuala Lumpur: Malaysian Nature Society - Bird Conservation Council, Malaysia. pp. 60.
  3. The State of the World’s Forests 2020. Forests, biodiversity and people, 2020. FAO and UNEP, Rome, Italy. pp. 214. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  4. Abdul Rahman, A.R., Mohd Nasir, A.H., Azmi, N., Nor Hasliza, M.B. & Latiff, A. (2014). Hutan Simpan Gunung Tebu, Terengganu: Pengurusan Hutan, Persekitaran Fizikal dan Kepelbagaian Biologi. Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 343.
  5. Al Zahri, M. & Norhayati, A. (2022). Burung-burung Malaysia : Malaysia Biodiversity Information System (MyBIS), Volume 2. Kementerian Tenaga & Sumber Asli, Malaysia. pp. 100.
  6. Davison, G.W.H. & Chew, Y. F. (1995). A Photographic Guide to Birds of Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore. New Holand Ltd. pp. 144.
  7. Jain, A., Lee, J.G.H., Chao, N., Lees, C., Orenstein, R., Strange, B.C., Chng, S.C.L., Marthy, W., Yeap, C.A. & Rao, M. (2018). Helmeted Hornbill (Rhinoplax vigil): Status Review, Range-wide Conservation Strategy and Action Plan (2018-2027). IUCN SSC Hornbill Specialist Group. pp. 54. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  8. Jamaludin, H., Yatim, H.S.H., Abu Hashim, A.K., Saaban, S., Hassan, H., Othman, A. & Mohd Nor, D.H. (2007). Avifauna: Taman Negara: Senarai Spesies. Jabatan Perlindungan Hidupan Liar dan Taman Negara Malaysia (PERHILITAN), Malaysia. pp. 44.
  9. Jeyarajasingam, A., Norhayati, A., Yasser, M.A. & Ilias, R. (2016). Burung-burung Malaysia : Malaysia Biodiversity Information System (MyBIS). Penerbit UKM, Bangi, Malaysia. pp. 165. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ] — [ | eBook (EPUB) ]
  10. Omar, R. (2018). Birds of the Forests of Peninsular Malaysia: A Photographic Guide. Strategic Information and Research Development Centre, Malaysia. pp. 351.
  11. Rajendran, S. & Jeyarajasingam, A. (2021). Malaysian Birds - A Glimpse. Malaysian Nature Society (MNS), Malaysia. pp. 1-335.
  12. Rosla, M. (2014). Burung-burung di Semenanjung Malaysia: Hak Milik Kita yang Terlepas Pandang, Volume 1. Red Door To Hunt, Malaysia. pp. 369.
  13. Strange, M. (2000). A Photographic Guide to the Birds of Malaysia & Singapore including Southeast Asia, The Philippines and Borneo. Eric Oey, Singapore. pp. 398.
  14. Jeyarajasingam, A. (2012). A Field Guide to the Birds of Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore 2nd Edition. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 449.
Magazine/Bulletin
  1. Identification of Commonly Traded Wildlife with a focus on the Golden Triangle (Lao PDR, Myanmar and Thailand) (2020). TRAFFIC, Southeast Asia Regional Office, Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  2. MALAYSIA - Birdwatching Paradise (October 2015). Tourism Malaysia, Ministry of Tourism and Culture, Malaysia, Malaysia. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  3. Malaysian Naturalist, Vol. 72 (2), 2/2019. Malaysian Nature Society (MNS)
  4. Malaysian Naturalist, Vol. 72 (3), 3/2019. Malaysian Nature Society, Malaysia.
  5. Conservation Malaysia (19), 2014. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Malaysia. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  6. FRIM in FOCUS (March 2022). Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Malaysia.
Unpublish
  1. Checklist of Biodiversity of Setiu (2019)

Acknowledgements :- Ms. Aida Salihah Binti Abu Bakar, Ms. Ajla Rafidah Baharom, Mr. Allen Jeyarajasingam, Mrs. Aziemah Binti Kinan, Ms. Mira Farzana Binti Mohamad Mokhtar, Ms. Norazah Binti Norddin, Mrs. Nur Hazwanie Binti Abd Halim, Ms. Nurfarhana Hizan Binti Hijas, Ms. Nursyafiqa Madzlen, Ms. Siti Zubaidah Binti Abdul Latif, Mr. Tan Kok Kiat & Mr. Yasser Mohamed Arifin

Photo credit :- Abdul Razak Mohd Nor Rasid & Muhammad Al Zahri

Species Citation :- Buceros bicornis. Malaysia Biodiversity Information System (MyBIS). Accessed via https://www.mybis.gov.my/sp/20943. [Retrieved 02 December 2022].

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