Native Animals

Naja kaouthia

Monocled Cobra
LC
Least Concern
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
ver 3.1, 2012
QR Code
SSN 21355
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Taxonomy

Description

The monocled cobra has an average size of 100 – 190 cm. This cobra can raise the anterior third of its body and also expand the neck which is called as “hood”. There were single, hood markings behind the neck and this snake will produce a loud warning sound when being threatened. The markings on the hood are varied in O-shapes often like a monocle or mask-shaped and sometimes it scrambles. The pattern of the cobra body and coloration are highly variable. Almost all have uniform pale yellow, pale to dark brown, grey or black colour. Some specimens are ragged or clearly showing its cross bands (Sibunruang et al., 2013). This cobra is oviparous with clutches comprising of 15-30 eggs. It hunts frogs and toads, fishes, snakes, birds, rodents and small mammals for food. It can be found in lowland and mid-hill forests, agricultural fields and plantations, near termite mounds and in a wide range of other hiding places. Although largely terrestrial, it was known to swim in lakes and rivers.

Habits

  Part Habit
 
Oviparous   —   Reproduction through production of eggs that have membranes and/or shells.
 
Venomous   —   Capable of injecting venom by means of a bite or sting.

Habitats

No Description Suitability Seasonality
1
Artificial - Terrestrial → Arable Land
Suitable Unknown
2
Artificial - Terrestrial → Plantations
Suitable Unknown
3
Artificial - Terrestrial → Rural Gardens
Suitable Unknown
4
Artificial - Terrestrial → Urban Areas
Suitable Unknown
5
Forest → Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Forest Vegetation Above High Tide Level
Suitable Unknown
6
Forest → Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland Forest
Suitable Unknown
7
Forest → Subtropical/Tropical Swamp Forest
Suitable Unknown
8
Grassland → Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded Lowland Grassland
Suitable Unknown
9
Shrubland → Subtropical/Tropical Moist Shrubland
Suitable Unknown
10
Wetlands → Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands [generally over 8 ha]
Suitable Unknown
11
Wetlands → Shrub Dominated Wetlands
Suitable Unknown
References : http://www.iucnredlist.org/technical-documents/classification-schemes/habitats-classification-scheme-ver3

Assessment

Year Published Assessment Red List Category Version
2012 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Least Concern (LC)
3.1
2010 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Least Concern (LC)
N/A

Structure

Dentitional
Type
Has one pair of short venom fangs connected to the front of the maxillary bone. With ordinary teeth ...
Proteroglyphous

Location

by State Location
  • Kedah 2
Based on publications, specimens, and images

Specimen

Collection Center   Total
4

Antivenom

Manufacturer First Dose/vials
Neuro Polyvalent Snake Antivenom
QSMI Thai Red Cross
50-100 mls / 5-10 vials
Subsequent dose 1-2 hr

Biodiversity Experts

Profile
Amirrudin Bin Ahmad (Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT)
  • Amphibians
  • Dragonflies and Damselflies
  • Fishes
  • Reptiles
  • Biodiversity
  • Data Analysis
  • Digital Sequence Information (DSI)
  • Living Modified Organism (LMO)
  • Marine & Coastal
  • Protected Areas
  • Invasive Alien Species
  • PM
Chen Pelf Nyok (Dr.)
Turtle Conservation Society of Malaysia (TCS)
  • Turtle, Tortoise, and Terrapin (Ecology)
  • Reptiles (Ecology)
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Education
  • Environment
  • PM
Kaviarasu Munian (Mr.)
Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM)
  • Reptiles (Ecology)
  • Amphibians (Ecology)
  • Fishes (Ecology)
  • PM
Lim Boo Liat (Dr.)
  • Reptiles (Ecology)
  • Rodents (Ecology)
  • Amphibians (Ecology)
  • Biodiversity
  • Ecosystems
  • Invasive Alien Species
Mohammad Shahfiz Azman (Mr.)
Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM)
  • Amphibians
  • Mammals
  • Birds
  • Amphibians
  • Reptiles
  • Awareness
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Ecosystems
  • Environment
  • Forest
  • Landscape
  • Law and Policy
  • Management
  • Protected Areas
  • Science
  • Systematics
  • Invasive Alien Species
  • Like-Minded Megadiverse Countries (LMMC)
  • National Policy on Biological Diversity
  • Policy
  • Research and Development (R&D)
  • Zoonotic
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
Mohd Abdul Muin Bin Md Akil (Mr.)
Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM)
  • Amphibians
  • Birds
  • Reptiles
  • Snakes
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Evolution
  • Genetics
  • Molecular
  • Protected Areas
  • Climate Change
  • Invasive Alien Species
Teo Eng Wah (Dr.)
University of Malaya (UM)
  • Reptiles
  • Amphibians
  • Invasive Alien Species
PM - Peninsular Malaysia; SBH - Sabah; SWK - Sarawak; SEA - Southeast Asia; W - World;

References

Article
  1. Ibrahim, J., Shahrul Anuar, M.S., Norhayati, A., Nor, S.M., Shahriza, S., Nurul 'Ain, E., Nor Zalipah, M. & Rayan, D.M. (2006). An Annotated Checklist of Herpetofauna of Langkawi Island, Kedah, Malaysia. Malayan Nature Journal 58, 1-15
  2. Lim, B.L., Noor Alif Wira, O., Chan, K.O., Daicus, B. & Norhayati, A. (2010). An Updated Checklist of the Herpetofauna of Pulau Singa Besar, Langkawi, Peninsular Malaysia. Malaysian Applied Biology Journal 39 (1), 13-23. https://www.researchgate.net
  3. Norshaqinah, A., Muzneena, A.M., Senawi, J. & Norhayati, A. (2018). Distribution and abundance of vertebrate animal road-kills on Pulau Langkawi, Kedah, Peninsular Malaysia. Malayan Nature Journal. , 9
  4. Quah, E.S.H., Mohd Abdul Muin, M.A., Nur Amira, A.R., Fatim Syakirah, M., Shahrul Anuar, M.S. & Lee Grismer, L. (2013). Species Diversity of Herpetofauna of Bukit Panchor State Park, Penang, Peninsular Malaysia. Malayan Nature Journal 64 (4), 193-211
  5. Shahriza, S., Ibrahim, J., Ibrahim, N.H., Ismail, A., Hurzaid, A., Awang, Z. & Shahrul Anuar, M.S. (2013). An Addition of Reptiles of Gunung Inas, Kedah, Malaysia. Russian Journal of Herpetology 20 (3), 171-180
  6. Shahriza, S., Ibrahim, J., Shahrul Anuar, M.S. & Mohd Abdul Muin, M.A. (2012). Herpetofauna of Peta Area of Endau-Rompin National Park,Johor, Malaysia. Pertanika Journal of Tropical Agricultural Science 35 (3), 553-567
  7. Shahriza, S. & Ibrahim, J. (2014). Reptiles of Lata Bukit Hijau, Kedah, Malaysia. Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology 36 (1), 37-44. http://rdo.psu.ac.th/sjstweb/journal/36-1/36-1-5.pdf
Book
  1. Guideline: Management of Snakebite, 2017. Ministry of Health Malaysia, Putrajaya, Malaysia. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  2. Guidelines for the Management of Snakebites, 2nd edition, 2016. WHO Regional Office for South-East Asia, New Delhi, India. pp. 206.
  3. Panduan Pengendalian Reptilia Berbisa (Ular). Jabatan Bomba dan Penyelamat Malaysia. pp. 75.
  4. Snake Farm Exhibition, 2010. Snake Farm, Queen Saovabha Memorial Institute, The Thai Red Cross Society, Thailand. pp. 97.
  5. WHO Guidelines for the Production, Control and Regulation of Snake Antivenom Immunoglobulins, 2010. World Health Organization, Switzerland. pp. 140. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  6. Das, I. (2010). A Field Guide to the Reptiles of South-East Asia. New Holland Publishers (UK), England. pp. 369.
  7. Das, I. (2012). A Naturalist's Guide to the Snakes of South-east Asia : Including Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Myanmar, Borneo, Sumatra, Java and Bali. John Beaufoy Publishing, Oxford, England. pp. 70-71; 160 pg.
  8. Ismail, A.K., Teo, E.W., Das, I., Vasaruchapong, T. & Weinstein, S.A. (2017). Land Snakes of Medical Significance in Malaysia. Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Putrajaya, Malaysia. pp. 80. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ] — [ | eBook (EPUB) ]
  9. Ismail, A.K., Teo, E.W., Das, I., Vasaruchapong, T. & Weinstein, S.A. (2022). Land Snakes of Medical Significance in Malaysia. 3rd Edition. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Malaysia. pp. 87. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  10. Meijaard, E., Garcia-Ulloa, J, Sheil, D, Wich, S., Carlson, K.M, Juffe-Bignoli, D & Brooks, T.M (2018). Oil palm and biodiversity : a situation analysis by the IUCN Oil Palm Task Force. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. pp. 116. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  11. Sibunruang, S., Suteparuk, S. & Sitprija, V. (2013). Manual of Practical Management of Snake-bites and Animal Toxin Injury. Bangkok: Queen Saovabha Memorial Institute, The Thai Red Cross Society, Thailand. pp. 88.
  12. Sitprija, V. & Suteparuk, S. (2012). Clinical Physiology of Animal Toxins: An Overview. Queen Saovabha Memorial Institute, The Thai Red Cross Society, Thailand. pp. 119.
Chapter in book
  1. Das, I., Norhayati, A. & Lim, B.L. (2015). Venomous Terrestrial Snakes of Malaysia: Their Identity and Biology. In Gopalakrishnakone, P., Faiz, M.A., Fernando, R., Gnanathasan, C.A., Habib, A.G. & Yang, C.-C. (Eds.), Clinical Toxinology in Asia Pacific and Africa. Springer. pp. 53-69. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  2. Ismail, A.K. (2015). Snakebite and Envenomation Management in Malaysia. In Gopalakrishnakone, P., Faiz, M.A., Fernando, R., Gnanathasan, C.A., Habib, A.G. & Yang, C.-C. (Eds.), Clinical Toxinology in Asia Pacific and Africa. Springer. pp. 71-102.

Acknowledgements :- Mr. Ahmad Amir Firdaus Bin Mad Apandi, Ms. Aida Salihah Binti Abu Bakar, Ms. Ajla Rafidah Baharom, Mrs. Aziemah Binti Kinan, Mr. Badrul Amin Bin Jaffar, Ms. Fatin Farisha Binti Mohd Jamil, Mr. Mohd Abdul Muin Bin Md Akil, Ms. Noor Amira Aini Binti Noor Anwar, Ms. Nor Liyana Binti Hassan, Ms. Norazah Binti Norddin, Mrs. Nur Hazwanie Binti Abd Halim, Ms. Nurfarhana Hizan Binti Hijas, Ms. Nurul Aimi Amirah Binti Mohd Zaki, Ms. Siti Zubaidah Binti Abdul Latif, Mr. Tan Kok Kiat & Mr. Yasser Mohamed Arifin

Photo credit :- Dr Teo Eng Wah & Kaviarasu Munian

Species Citation :- Naja kaouthia. Malaysia Biodiversity Information System (MyBIS). Accessed via https://www.mybis.gov.my/sp/21355. [Retrieved 28 November 2022].

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Website Citation: MyBIS (2022). Malaysia Biodiversity Information System. Published on the Internet https://www.mybis.gov.my/, Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources, Malaysia Biodiversity Centre & Forest Research Institute Malaysia. [Retrieved 28 November 2022].