Native Animals

Gracula religiosa

Common Hill Myna
LC
Least Concern
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
ver 3.1, 2018
QR Code
SSN 21541
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Taxonomy

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Description

Commonly known as Common Hill Myna, Gracula religiosa is a species of bird belongs to the Sturnidae (Starlings) family. It is a large-sized bird with a stocky build body measuring around 30.5 cm in length. This bird has glossy black plumages, pinkish-orange bill and yellow facial wattles on behind and below the eyes with white wing patch that is obvious during flight. This myna utters a clear whistle of ‘tiong’ and nests in holes of dead trees in forest and forest edges. It is a popular cage bird with a mimicry power that able to mimic the calls of the other birds and human speech (Strange & Jeyarajasingam, 1993; Jeyarajasingam & Pearson, 2012). 

The Common Hill Myna is widely distributed in the Oriental region which ranges from the Indian subcontinent to China through South-East Asia to Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo and Java. In Peninsular Malaysia, this species is known to inhabit the canopy of lowland rainforest and also mangroves (Strange & Jeyarajasingam, 1993; Jeyarajasingam & Pearson, 2012). Whereas in Borneo, it can be seen in tall forest (Phillips, 2014). 

 

Habits

  Part Habit
 
Colony / Group
Sometimes in small parties, often perching on tall dead trees.
 
Couple or Pair

Habitats

No Description Suitability Seasonality
1
Artificial - Terrestrial → Plantations
Suitable Resident
2
Forest → Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Forest Vegetation Above High Tide Level
Suitable Resident
3
Forest → Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland Forest
Suitable Resident
4
Forest → Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane Forest
Suitable Resident
References : http://www.iucnredlist.org/technical-documents/classification-schemes/habitats-classification-scheme-ver3

Assessment

Year Published Assessment Red List Category Version
2018 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Least Concern (LC)
3.1
2016 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Least Concern (LC)
3.1
2012 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Least Concern (LC)
3.1
2009 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Least Concern (LC)
N/A
2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Least Concern (LC)
N/A
2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Least Concern (LC)
N/A
2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Least Concern (LC)
N/A
2000 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Least Concern (LC)
N/A
1994 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Least Concern (LC)
N/A
1988 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Least Concern (LC)
N/A

Structure

Feet
Color
 
Yellow
Legs
Color
 
Yellow
Plumage
Color
 
Black
Wattles
Color
 
Yellow

Location

by State Location
  • Johore 5
  • Kedah 1
  • Negeri Sembilan 1
  • Pahang 3
  • Penang 1
  • Perak 1
  • Selangor 1
  • Federal Territories of Putrajaya 2
Based on publications, specimens, and images

Specimen

Biodiversity Experts

Profile
Abdul Rahman (Mr.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
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Azmi Mat Ali (Mr.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
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  • PM
Farah Shafawati Mohd Taib (Dr.)
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM)
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  • Squirrels
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  • PM
Ismail Bin Hj. Mamat (Mr.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
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  • PM
Meor Amran Bin Meor Zulkifilee (Mr.)
Birdgroup Taman Negara (BGTN)
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Mohammad Shahfiz Azman (Mr.)
Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM)
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Mohd Abdul Muin Bin Md Akil (Mr.)
Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM)
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Rahmah Binti Ilias (Mrs.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
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Rosli Hashim (Prof. Dr.)
University of Malaya (UM)
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  • PM
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Rosli Ramli (Assoc. Prof. Dr.)
University of Malaya (UM)
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Syaizwan Zahmir Zulkifli (Dr.)
Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM)
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Yeap Chin Aik (Mr.)
Malaysian Nature Society (MNS)
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  • PM
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  • SWK
PM - Peninsular Malaysia; SBH - Sabah; SWK - Sarawak; SEA - Southeast Asia; W - World;

References

Article
  1. David, G., Roslan, A., Azhar, I. & Abdullah, M.T. (2017). Birds in Tanjung Mentong, Terengganu, Peninsular Malaysia. Journal of Wildlife and Parks 32, 85-92. http://www.wildlife.gov.my/images/document/penerbitan/jurnal/2017/09.pdf
  2. Jambari, A., Azhar, B., Ibrahim, N.L., Jamian, S., Hussin, A., Chong, L.P., Noor, H.M., Yusof, E. & Zakaria, M. (2012). Avian Biodiversity and Conservation in Malaysian Oil Palm Production Areas. Journal of Oil Palm Research 24, 1277-1286. http://palmoilis.mpob.gov.my/publications/joprv24april2012-Asrul.pdf
  3. Joeman, B.D, G.Hubert, Petol & V., Rudolf (2019). Avifaunal survey of Ulu Kalang Forest Reserve in the district of Tenom, Sabah, Malaysia. Sepilok Bulletin. 28, 69-80
  4. Ramli, R., Ya'cob, Z. & Hashim, R. (2009). Diversity of Birds in Kenaboi Forest Reserve, Jelebu, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. Malaysian Journal of Science 28 (4), 465-480
  5. Sodhi, N.S., Briffett, C., Lee, B.P.Y-H. & Subaraj, R. (1999). An Annotated Checklist of the Birds of Pulau Tioman, Peninsular Malaysia. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Supplements (6), 125-130
  6. Suis, M.A.F., Miun, J., Tingkoi, L. & Nilus, R. (2019). Inventory of terrestrial mammals and birds in Sungai Pin Conservation Area, Kinabatangan. Sepilok Bulletin. 28, 49-68. http://www.forest.sabah.gov.my/docs/frc/Sepilok%20Bulletin%20Vol%2028%20(2019).pdf
  7. Tuen, A.A., Sapian, A.F., Ismail, K., Peter, C., Haba, M.H.A.-H. & Lee, C.C. (2018). Avifauna in Logged-Over Forest of Upper Baleh, Sarawak. Borneo Journal of Resource Science and Technology 8 (2), 66-74. http://publisher.unimas.my/ojs/index.php/BJRST/article/view/1197/711
Book
  1. Birds of FRIM, 2003. Forest Research Institute of Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 49.
  2. Birds of Tembeling Hornbill Valley, 2022. Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources, Malaysia. pp. 75.
  3. Guidebook to the Biodiversity of Linting wetlands, 2015. Wetlands International, Malaysia. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  4. Island Life: A Natural History of Pulau Tengah, Johor, Malaysia, 2018. WS Lifestyle, Singapore. pp. 163.
  5. MNS Bird Conservation Council. 2015. A Checklist of the Birds of Malaysia Second Edition. Kuala Lumpur: Malaysian Nature Society - Bird Conservation Council, Malaysia. pp. 60.
  6. Pelan Pengurusan Hidupan Liar Putrajaya, 1998. PERHILITAN & Perbadanan Putrajaya, Malaysia. pp. 100.
  7. Abdul Rahman, A.R., Mohd Nasir, A.H., Mohamed Zin, Y., Richard, A.M. & Latiff, A. (2013). Banjaran Bintang Gunung Inas, Kedah: Pengurusan Hutan, Persekitaran Fizikal dan Kepelbagaian Biologi. Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 245.
  8. Asyraf, M., Mohd Abdul Muin, M.A., Shahrul Anuar, M.S. & Rahmad, Z. (2015). Pictorial Guide To The Plant and Bird Life of Byram Mangrove Forest, Penang. Penerbit USM, Malaysia. pp. 190.
  9. Beastall, C.A. & Chng, S.C.L. (2021). Identification of Commonly Traded Wildlife in Southeast Asia. TRAFFIC, Southeast Asia Regional Office, Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  10. Davison, G.W.H. & Chew, Y. F. (1995). A Photographic Guide to Birds of Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore. New Holand Ltd. pp. 144.
  11. Gumal, M.T., Hon, J. & Kong, D. (2008). Birds and Bats of Loagan Bunut National Park Sarawak, Malaysia, Issue/No. 11. Peat Swamp Forest Project, UNDP/GEF Funded (MAL/99/G31) in collaboration with the Sarawak Forest Department and Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS), Malaysia. pp. 1-105.
  12. Hazebroek, H.P., Adlin, T.Z. & Sinun, W. (2011). Danum Valley: The Rain Forest. Natural History Publications (Borneo), Malaysia. pp. 615.
  13. Jamaludin, H., Yatim, H.S.H., Abu Hashim, A.K., Saaban, S., Hassan, H., Othman, A. & Mohd Nor, D.H. (2007). Avifauna: Taman Negara: Senarai Spesies. Jabatan Perlindungan Hidupan Liar dan Taman Negara Malaysia (PERHILITAN), Malaysia. pp. 44.
  14. Jamaludin, H., Yatim, H.S.H., Abu Hashim, A.K., Saaban, S., Hassan, H., Othman, A. & Mohamad Rufino, B.M. (2007). Avifauna: Paya Indah Wetlands: Senarai Spesies. Jabatan Perlindungan Hidupan Liar dan Taman Negara Malaysia (PERHILITAN), Malaysia. pp. 21.
  15. Maimon, A. (2008). Biodiversity of Sungai Pulai: Ramsar Site, Johor. Earth Observation Centre, Malaysia. pp. 97.
  16. Mohd. Paiz, K., Norhaidi, Y., Rosilan, S., Norhayati, A. & Latiff, A. (2016). Taman Rimba Kenong, Pahang: The Central Gem of Peninsular Malaysia. Jabatan Perhutanan Negeri Pahang, Malaysia. pp. 135.
  17. Myers, S. (2009). A Field Guide to the Birds of Borneo. Simon Papps, Singapore. pp. 272.
  18. Omar, R. (2018). Birds of the Forests of Peninsular Malaysia: A Photographic Guide. Strategic Information and Research Development Centre, Malaysia. pp. 351.
  19. Phang, S.M., Affendi, Y.A., Ooi, J.L.S. & Haji, A.J.M. (2008). Natural History of The Pulau Tioman Group of Islands. Institute of Ocean and Earth Sciences (IOES), University of Malaya, Malaysia. pp. 292.
  20. Phillipps, Q. (2014). Phillipps' Field Guide to the Birds of Borneo: Sabah, Sarawak, Brunei and Kalimantan. Third Edition. John Beaufoy Publishing Ltd., United Kingdom. pp. 337, 372.
  21. Rosla, M. (2014). Burung-burung di Semenanjung Malaysia: Hak Milik Kita yang Terlepas Pandang, Volume 1. Red Door To Hunt, Malaysia. pp. 369.
  22. Chan, K.S & See, C.M (2020). Coastal Mangrove Birds of Bagan Datuk, Perak. Malaysian Nature Society, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. pp. 80.
  23. Shaharuddin, M.I., Mokhtar, M.I., Wan Yusof, W.A., M. Rahim, R. & Latiff, A. (2004). Taman Negeri Endau Rompin : Pengurusan, Persekitaran Fizikal dan Biologi. Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 378.
  24. Strange, M. & Jeyarajasingam, A. (1993). A Photographic Guide to Birds of Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore. Sun Tree Publishing, Singapore. pp. 270.
  25. Jeyarajasingam, A. (2012). A Field Guide to the Birds of Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore 2nd Edition. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 449.
Chapter in book
  1. Inventori Hidupan Liar di Putrajaya. In Pelan Pengurusan Hidupan Liar Putrajaya. PERHILITAN & Perbadanan Putrajaya. pp. 1-52.
Checklist
  1. Senarai Nama-nama Burung Semenanjung Malaysia dan Asia Tenggara (1981)
Magazine/Bulletin
  1. BirdingASIA (24), 12/2015. Bedford, UK : Oriental Bird Club, England.
  2. Identification of Commonly Traded Wildlife with a focus on the Golden Triangle (Lao PDR, Myanmar and Thailand) (2020). TRAFFIC, Southeast Asia Regional Office, Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  3. TRAFFIC Bulletin, Vol. 30 (1), 4/2018. TRAFFIC, Cambridge, UK — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  4. TRAFFIC Bulletin, Vol. 32 (2), 10/2020. TRAFFIC
Pamphlet/Brochure
  1. Identification Sheets for Wildlife Species Traded in Southeast Asia (2008) — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
Report
  1. Birds and biodiversity targets: what do birds tell us about progress to the Aichi Targets and requirements for the post-2020 biodiversity framework?. BirdLife International. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  2. Laporan Inventori Hidupan Liar Putrajaya 2019. Kementerian Air, Tanah dan Sumber Asli (KATS) dan Jabatan Perlindungan Hidupan Liar dan Taman Negara Semenanjung Malaysia (PERHILITAN), Malaysia. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  3. Laporan Program Kajian Inventori dan Pengurusan Hidupan Liar Tahun 2017, Wilayah Persekutuan Putrajaya. Perbadanan Putrajaya & PERHILITAN, Malaysia.
  4. The IUCN SSC Asian Songbird Trade Specialist Group. A brief report on its first four years: 2017-2020. The IUCN SSC Asian Songbird Trade Specialist Group (ASTSG), Singapore. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]

Acknowledgements :- Mr. Ahmad Amir Firdaus Bin Mad Apandi, Ms. Aida Salihah Binti Abu Bakar, Mr. Allen Jeyarajasingam, Ms. Anis Syafiqah Binti Mohamad Amir Hamzah, Mrs. Aziemah Binti Kinan, Mr. Badrul Amin Bin Jaffar, Ms. Fatin Qurratul 'ain Binti Saberam, Ms. Mira Farzana Binti Mohamad Mokhtar, Ms. Norayuni Binti Ramlee, Mrs. Nur Hazwanie Binti Abd Halim, Ms. Nurfadzilah Bt Azmi, Ms. Nurfarhana Hizan Binti Hijas, Ms. Nurliyana Binti Abd Rahman, Ms. Nursyafiqa Madzlen, Ms. Siti Zubaidah Binti Abdul Latif, Mr. Tan Kok Kiat & Mr. Yasser Mohamed Arifin

Photo credit :- Francis Yap & Mohd Suhaimi Bin Mohd Yusof

Species Citation :- Gracula religiosa. Malaysia Biodiversity Information System (MyBIS). Accessed via https://www.mybis.gov.my/sp/21541. [Retrieved 09 December 2022].

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