Native Animals

Halcyon smyrnensis

White-throated Kingfisher
LC
Least Concern
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
ver 3.1, 2017
QR Code
SSN 21561
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Taxonomy

Description

White-throated Kingfisher or Halcyon smyrnensis is a large kingfisher which has a thick, reddish-orange bills, red legs, and dark chocolate-coloured heads, bellies, and shoulders. A white patch can be found on the throat and sometimes the breast. The wings and tail are bright blue with white patches on the primaries and black distal tips.

This species is common in rural areas, villages, towns and parks, also in mangroves, near coasts, along rivers and on agricultural land. The diet of the White-throated Kingfisher is known to include insects, lizards and amphibians as well as fishes. Although they feed on fish, White-throated Kingfishers are not deep divers and do not spend significant amounts of time underwater.

Habits

  Part Habit
 
Solitary   —   Single only.

Habitats

No Description Suitability Seasonality
1
Artificial - Aquatic → Canals and Drainage Channels, Ditches
Suitable Resident
2
Artificial - Aquatic → Ponds [below 8 ha]
Suitable Resident
3
Artificial - Aquatic → Water Storage Areas [over 8 ha]
Suitable Resident
4
Artificial - Terrestrial → Arable Land
Suitable Resident
5
Artificial - Terrestrial → Pastureland
Suitable Resident
6
Artificial - Terrestrial → Plantations
Suitable Resident
7
Artificial - Terrestrial → Rural Gardens
Suitable Resident
8
Artificial - Terrestrial → Urban Areas
Suitable Resident
9
Forest → Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Forest Vegetation Above High Tide Level
Suitable Resident
10
Forest → Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland Forest
Suitable Resident
11
Forest → Subtropical/Tropical Swamp Forest
Suitable Resident
12
Marine Intertidal → Mangrove Submerged Roots
Suitable Resident
13
Marine Intertidal → Mud Flats and Salt Flats
Suitable Resident
14
Marine Intertidal → Rocky Shoreline
Suitable Resident
15
Marine Intertidal → Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, etc.
Suitable Resident
16
Marine Intertidal → Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches
Suitable Resident
17
Wetlands → Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands [generally over 8 ha]
Suitable Resident
References : http://www.iucnredlist.org/technical-documents/classification-schemes/habitats-classification-scheme-ver3

Assessment

Year Published Assessment Red List Category Version
2017 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Least Concern (LC)
3.1
2016 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Least Concern (LC)
N/A
2014 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Least Concern (LC)
N/A

Location

by State Location
  • Johore 4
  • Kedah 1
  • Negeri Sembilan 1
  • Pahang 2
  • Penang 3
  • Perak 5
  • Selangor 1
  • Terengganu 2
  • Federal Territories of Kuala Lumpur 1
  • Federal Territories of Putrajaya 3
Based on publications, specimens, and images

Biodiversity Experts

Profile
Abdul Rahman (Mr.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
  • Birds
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Ecosystems
  • Environment
  • Forest
  • Protected Areas
  • Wildlife Trade
  • PM
Azmi Mat Ali (Mr.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
  • Birds (Taxonomy)
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Wildlife Trade
  • PM
Farah Shafawati Mohd Taib (Dr.)
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM)
  • Birds
  • Mammals
  • Rodents
  • Treeshrews
  • Squirrels
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Data Analysis
  • Ecosystems
  • Taxonomy
  • PM
Ismail Bin Hj. Mamat (Mr.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
  • Birds
  • Biodiversity
  • Protected Areas
  • Invasive Alien Species
  • PM
Meor Amran Bin Meor Zulkifilee (Mr.)
Birdgroup Taman Negara (BGTN)
  • Birds
  • Business
  • Environment
  • Forest
  • Management
  • Tourism
  • PM
Mohammad Shahfiz Azman (Mr.)
Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM)
  • Amphibians
  • Mammals
  • Birds
  • Amphibians
  • Reptiles
  • Awareness
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Ecosystems
  • Environment
  • Forest
  • Landscape
  • Law and Policy
  • Management
  • Protected Areas
  • Science
  • Systematics
  • Invasive Alien Species
  • Like-Minded Megadiverse Countries (LMMC)
  • National Policy on Biological Diversity
  • Policy
  • Research and Development (R&D)
  • Zoonotic
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
Mohd Abdul Muin Bin Md Akil (Mr.)
Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM)
  • Amphibians
  • Birds
  • Reptiles
  • Snakes
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Evolution
  • Genetics
  • Molecular
  • Protected Areas
  • Climate Change
  • Invasive Alien Species
Rahmah Binti Ilias (Mrs.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
  • Birds
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Protected Areas
  • Invasive Alien Species
  • PM
Rosli Hashim (Prof. Dr.)
University of Malaya (UM)
  • Birds (Ecology)
  • Mammals (Ecology)
  • Spiders
  • Insects
  • Biodiversity
  • Protected Areas
  • PM
  • W
Rosli Ramli (Assoc. Prof. Dr.)
University of Malaya (UM)
  • Mammals (Ecology)
  • Birds
  • Biodiversity
  • Digital Sequence Information (DSI)
  • Protected Areas
  • Marine & Coastal
  • PM
  • W
Syaizwan Zahmir Zulkifli (Dr.)
Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM)
  • Birds (Ecology)
  • Fishes (Ecology)
  • Molluscs (Ecology)
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Ecosystems
  • Marine & Coastal
  • Water
Yeap Chin Aik (Mr.)
Malaysian Nature Society (MNS)
  • Birds (Ecology)
  • Awareness
  • Biodiversity
  • Biological Resource
  • Conservation
  • Ecosystems
  • Education
  • Forest
  • Landscape
  • Management
  • Protected Areas
  • Traditional Knowledge (TK)
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
PM - Peninsular Malaysia; SBH - Sabah; SWK - Sarawak; SEA - Southeast Asia; W - World;

References

Article
  1. Azman, N.M., Abdul Latip, N.S., Shahrul Anuar, M.S., Mohd Abdul Muin, M.A., Shafie, N.J. & Khairuddin, N.L. (2011). Avian Diversity and Feeding Guilds in a Secondary Forest, an Oil Palm Plantation and a Paddy Field in Riparian Areas of the Kerian River Basin, Perak, Malaysia. Tropical Life Sciences Research (TSLR) 22 (2), 45–64
  2. Baharuddin, Z.M., Rusli, F.N. & Othman, R. (2014). Kuala Lumpur Urban Biodiversity: Birds Community in Urban Public Parks. International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Policy 3 (6), 146-159
  3. Jambari, A., Azhar, B., Ibrahim, N.L., Jamian, S., Hussin, A., Chong, L.P., Noor, H.M., Yusof, E. & Zakaria, M. (2012). Avian Biodiversity and Conservation in Malaysian Oil Palm Production Areas. Journal of Oil Palm Research 24, 1277-1286. http://palmoilis.mpob.gov.my/publications/joprv24april2012-Asrul.pdf
  4. Rajpar, M.N. & Zakaria, M. (2014). Effects of Habitat Characteristics on Waterbird Distribution and Richness in Wetland Ecosystem of Malaysia. Journal of Wildlife and Parks 28, 105-120
  5. Ramli, R., Ya'cob, Z. & Hashim, R. (2009). Diversity of Birds in Kenaboi Forest Reserve, Jelebu, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. Malaysian Journal of Science 28 (4), 465-480
  6. Sodhi, N.S., Briffett, C., Lee, B.P.Y-H. & Subaraj, R. (1999). An Annotated Checklist of the Birds of Pulau Tioman, Peninsular Malaysia. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Supplements (6), 125-130
  7. Azman, N.M., Abdul Latip, N.S., Shahrul Anuar, M.S., Mohd Abdul Muin, M.A., Ahmad, A. & Shafie, N.J. (2014). Diversity and Temporal Distribution of Birds in Rice-Growing Landscape, Northern Peninsular Malaysia. Sains Malaysiana 43 (4), 513-520. http://www.ukm.my/jsm
  8. Zam Beri, A.Z., Shahfiz, M.A., Ahmad Ruzman, N.H., Fauzi, N.F.M., Ag Ahmadni, A.A. & Mohamad, F. (2021). Updates on Avifauna Community in Tasik Meranti, Wang Kelian, Taman Negeri Perlis. In IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 842(1): p. 012025. . https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1755-1315/842/1/012025/pdf
Book
  1. Birds of FRIM, 2003. Forest Research Institute of Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 49.
  2. Birds of Tembeling Hornbill Valley, 2022. Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources, Malaysia. pp. 75.
  3. Guidebook to the Biodiversity of Linting wetlands, 2015. Wetlands International, Malaysia. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  4. Island Life: A Natural History of Pulau Tengah, Johor, Malaysia, 2018. WS Lifestyle, Singapore. pp. 163.
  5. MNS Bird Conservation Council. 2015. A Checklist of the Birds of Malaysia Second Edition. Kuala Lumpur: Malaysian Nature Society - Bird Conservation Council, Malaysia. pp. 60.
  6. Abdul Rahman, A.R., Koh, H.L., Muhamad, A., Wan Yusof, W.K. & Latiff, A. (2011). Hutan Simpan Melaka: Pengurusan Hutan, Persekitaran Fizikal, Kepelbagaian Biologi dan Socio-ekonomi. Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 315.
  7. Akashah, M., Noordin, N., Kasim, A. & Dzahiri, F. (2012). Bird Map Putrajaya Lake and Wetland: UNECO - IHP Ecohydrology Programme. Perbadanan Putrajaya, Malaysia. pp. 120.
  8. Ang, L.H., Kaur, R. & Yusof, Z.A. (2012). Rimba Bidor: A Gift to Nature. Tin Tailings Afforestation Centre, Malaysia. pp. 108.
  9. Asyraf, M., Mohd Abdul Muin, M.A., Shahrul Anuar, M.S. & Rahmad, Z. (2015). Pictorial Guide To The Plant and Bird Life of Byram Mangrove Forest, Penang. Penerbit USM, Malaysia. pp. 190.
  10. Davison, G.W.H. & Chew, Y. F. (1995). A Photographic Guide to Birds of Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore. New Holand Ltd. pp. 144.
  11. Ilias, R., Aminurddin Ahmad, M., Yatim, H.S.H., Abu Hashim, A.K., Hassan, H., Othman, A. & Abidin, F.A.Z. (2007). Avifauna: Kuala Gula, Perak: Senarai Spesies. Jabatan Perlindungan Hidupan Liar dan Taman Negara Malaysia (PERHILITAN), Malaysia. pp. 21.
  12. Jamaludin, H., Yatim, H.S.H., Abu Hashim, A.K., Saaban, S., Hassan, H., Othman, A. & Mohd Nor, D.H. (2007). Avifauna: Taman Negara: Senarai Spesies. Jabatan Perlindungan Hidupan Liar dan Taman Negara Malaysia (PERHILITAN), Malaysia. pp. 44.
  13. Jamaludin, H., Yatim, H.S.H., Abu Hashim, A.K., Saaban, S., Hassan, H., Othman, A. & Mohamad Rufino, B.M. (2007). Avifauna: Paya Indah Wetlands: Senarai Spesies. Jabatan Perlindungan Hidupan Liar dan Taman Negara Malaysia (PERHILITAN), Malaysia. pp. 21.
  14. Jamilah, M.S. & Faridah, M. (2011). A Biological Assessment of Jambu Bongkok Forest Reserve, Terengganu and Nearby Ecosystem. Penerbit UMT, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, Malaysia. pp. 1-84.
  15. Jeyarajasingam, A., Norhayati, A., Yasser, M.A. & Ilias, R. (2016). Burung-burung Malaysia : Malaysia Biodiversity Information System (MyBIS). Penerbit UKM, Bangi, Malaysia. pp. 165. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ] — [ | eBook (EPUB) ]
  16. Latiff, A. (2010). Bukit Nanas Forest Reserve: Green Lung of Kuala Lumpur. Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 100.
  17. Maimon, A., Norhayati, A. & Sharifah Mastura, S.A. (2019). Biodiversity in Oil Palm Malaysia. Penerbit Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. pp. 123.
  18. Maimon, A. (2008). Biodiversity of Sungai Pulai: Ramsar Site, Johor. Earth Observation Centre, Malaysia. pp. 97.
  19. Mohammad Khairi, A (2007). Taman Negara Pulau Pinang: Sinar Mutiara Belantara. Jabatan Perlindungan Hidupan Liar dan Taman Negara, Malaysia. pp. 112.
  20. Omar, R. (2018). Birds of the Forests of Peninsular Malaysia: A Photographic Guide. Strategic Information and Research Development Centre, Malaysia. pp. 351.
  21. Praveena, B.K. & Maria Arlene, J.A.S. (2013). Compendium of Facts and Figures. 2nd Edition. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Malaysia. pp. 161.
  22. Rajendran, S. & Jeyarajasingam, A. (2021). Malaysian Birds - A Glimpse. Malaysian Nature Society (MNS), Malaysia. pp. 1-335.
  23. Rosla, M. (2014). Burung-burung di Semenanjung Malaysia: Hak Milik Kita yang Terlepas Pandang, Volume 1. Red Door To Hunt, Malaysia. pp. 369.
  24. Chan, K.S & See, C.M (2020). Coastal Mangrove Birds of Bagan Datuk, Perak. Malaysian Nature Society, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. pp. 80.
  25. Shaharuddin, M.I., Mokhtar, M.I., Wan Yusof, W.A., M. Rahim, R. & Latiff, A. (2004). Taman Negeri Endau Rompin : Pengurusan, Persekitaran Fizikal dan Biologi. Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 378.
Chapter in book
  1. Inventori Hidupan Liar di Putrajaya. In Pelan Pengurusan Hidupan Liar Putrajaya. PERHILITAN & Perbadanan Putrajaya. pp. 1-52.
  2. Nor Zalipah, M., Siti Tafzil Meriam, S.A.K., Wong, C.H, Embong, M. & Mamat, M.A. (2011). A Brief Survey of Birds and Bats at Jambu Bongkok Forest Reserve, Dungun, Terengganu. In Jamilah, M.S. & Faridah, M. (Eds.), A Biological Assessment of Jambu Bongkok Forest Reserve, Terengganu and Nearby Ecosystem. Penerbit UMT, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu. pp. 25-29.
Report
  1. Laporan Inventori Hidupan Liar Putrajaya 2019. Kementerian Air, Tanah dan Sumber Asli (KATS) dan Jabatan Perlindungan Hidupan Liar dan Taman Negara Semenanjung Malaysia (PERHILITAN), Malaysia. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  2. Laporan Program Kajian Inventori dan Pengurusan Hidupan Liar Tahun 2017, Wilayah Persekutuan Putrajaya. Perbadanan Putrajaya & PERHILITAN, Malaysia.
Unpublish
  1. Checklist of Biodiversity of Setiu (2019)

Acknowledgements :- Mr. Abdul Razak Mohd Nor Rasid, Mr. Ahmad Amir Firdaus Bin Mad Apandi, Ms. Aida Salihah Binti Abu Bakar, Ms. Ajla Rafidah Baharom, Mr. Allen Jeyarajasingam, Mrs. Aziemah Binti Kinan, Mr. Badrul Amin Bin Jaffar, Ms. Fatin Farisha Binti Mohd Jamil, Mr. Muhammad Izzuddin Bin Hazan, Ms. Noraini Binti Osman, Ms. Norayuni Binti Ramlee, Ms. Norazah Binti Norddin, Mrs. Nur Hazwanie Binti Abd Halim, Ms. Nurfadzilah Bt Azmi, Ms. Nurfarhana Hizan Binti Hijas, Ms. Nurliyana Binti Abd Rahman, Ms. Nursyafiqa Madzlen, Ms. Nurul Athirah Liyana Bt Abdul Rashid, Ms. Nurul Atikah Abu Bakar, Ms. Siti Zubaidah Binti Abdul Latif, Mr. Tan Kok Kiat & Mr. Yasser Mohamed Arifin

Photo credit :- Abdul Razak Mohd Nor Rasid, Fairuz Nur Adilah Binti Mohamad Nor, Graeme R. Guy, Koay Zhong Ying, Mohd Suhaimi Bin Mohd Yusof, Muhammad Al Zahri, Ong Poh Teck, Yasser Arifin & uzair ar

Species Citation :- Halcyon smyrnensis. Malaysia Biodiversity Information System (MyBIS). Accessed via https://www.mybis.gov.my/sp/21561. [Retrieved 29 November 2022].

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Website Citation: MyBIS (2022). Malaysia Biodiversity Information System. Published on the Internet https://www.mybis.gov.my/, Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources, Malaysia Biodiversity Centre & Forest Research Institute Malaysia. [Retrieved 29 November 2022].