Native Animals

Haliaeetus leucogaster

White-bellied Sea-eagle
LC
Least Concern
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
ver 3.1, 2012
QR Code
SSN 21564
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Taxonomy

The taxonomic status is pending for approval

Description

Haliaeetus leucogaster is a relatively large and slender eagle. It’s commonly known as white-bellied sea-eagle with an impressive wingspan and normally seen perched high in a tree or soaring over waterways by gliding with its wings held in a stiff ‘V’ shape. Male and female of White-bellied Sea eagles are similar in appearance, although females tend to be larger than males. This species has pure white head and underparts, pearl-grey to brownish-grey upperparts with contrasting blacking primaries and secondaries. The immature is mottled brown which is slightly differ from the adult (Strange & Jeyarajasingam, 1993).

The White-bellied Sea-Eagle is a skilled hunter feeding mainly on aquatic animals, such as fish, turtles and sea snakes. Sometimes it whoops down to pull out a large fish from the water surface with its powerful tallons (Strange & Jeyarajasingam, 1993). This species also feeds on other birds and mammals as well as carrion (dead prey) such as sheep and fish along the waterline.

Habitats

No Description Suitability Seasonality
1
Marine Coastal/Supratidal → Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands
Suitable Resident
2
Marine Intertidal → Rocky Shoreline
Suitable Resident
3
Marine Intertidal → Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, etc.
Suitable Resident
4
Marine Intertidal → Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches
Suitable Resident
5
Marine Neritic → Estuaries
Suitable Resident
6
Wetlands → Permanent Freshwater Lakes [over 8 ha]
Suitable Resident
7
Wetlands → Permanent Rivers, Streams, Creeks [includes waterfalls]
Suitable Resident
References : http://www.iucnredlist.org/technical-documents/classification-schemes/habitats-classification-scheme-ver3

Assessment

Year Published Assessment Red List Category Version
2016 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Least Concern (LC)
3.1
2012 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Least Concern (LC)
3.1
2009 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Least Concern (LC)
N/A
2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Least Concern (LC)
N/A
2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Least Concern (LC)
N/A
2000 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Least Concern (LC)
N/A
1994 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Least Concern (LC)
N/A
1988 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Least Concern (LC)
N/A

Location

by State Location
  • Johore 3
  • Kedah 3
  • Malacca 1
  • Pahang 1
  • Penang 1
  • Perak 5
  • Sabah 1
  • Sarawak 1
  • Terengganu 1
  • Federal Territories of Putrajaya 1
Based on publications, specimens, and images

Biodiversity Experts

Profile
Abdul Rahman (Mr.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
  • Birds
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Ecosystems
  • Environment
  • Forest
  • Protected Areas
  • Wildlife Trade
  • PM
Azmi Mat Ali (Mr.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
  • Birds (Taxonomy)
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Wildlife Trade
  • PM
Farah Shafawati Mohd Taib (Dr.)
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM)
  • Birds
  • Mammals
  • Rodents
  • Treeshrews
  • Squirrels
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Data Analysis
  • Ecosystems
  • Taxonomy
  • PM
Ismail Bin Hj. Mamat (Mr.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
  • Birds
  • Biodiversity
  • Protected Areas
  • Invasive Alien Species
  • PM
Meor Amran Bin Meor Zulkifilee (Mr.)
Birdgroup Taman Negara (BGTN)
  • Birds
  • Business
  • Environment
  • Forest
  • Management
  • Tourism
  • PM
Mohammad Shahfiz Azman (Mr.)
Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM)
  • Amphibians
  • Mammals
  • Birds
  • Awareness
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Ecosystems
  • Environment
  • Forest
  • Landscape
  • Law and Policy
  • Management
  • Protected Areas
  • Science
  • Systematics
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
Mohd Abdul Muin Bin Md Akil (Mr.)
Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM)
  • Amphibians
  • Birds
  • Reptiles
  • Snakes
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Evolution
  • Genetics
  • Molecular
  • Protected Areas
  • Climate Change
  • Invasive Alien Species
Rahmah Binti Ilias (Mrs.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
  • Birds
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Protected Areas
  • Invasive Alien Species
  • PM
Rosli Hashim (Prof. Dr.)
University of Malaya (UM)
  • Birds (Ecology)
  • Mammals (Ecology)
  • Spiders
  • Insects
  • Biodiversity
  • Protected Areas
  • PM
  • W
Rosli Ramli (Assoc. Prof. Dr.)
University of Malaya (UM)
  • Mammals (Ecology)
  • Birds
  • Biodiversity
  • Digital Sequence Information (DSI)
  • Protected Areas
  • Marine & Coastal
  • PM
  • W
Syaizwan Zahmir Zulkifli (Dr.)
Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM)
  • Birds (Ecology)
  • Fishes (Ecology)
  • Molluscs (Ecology)
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Ecosystems
  • Marine & Coastal
  • Water
Yeap Chin Aik (Mr.)
Malaysian Nature Society (MNS)
  • Birds (Ecology)
  • Awareness
  • Biodiversity
  • Biological Resource
  • Conservation
  • Ecosystems
  • Education
  • Forest
  • Landscape
  • Management
  • Protected Areas
  • Traditional Knowledge (TK)
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
PM - Peninsular Malaysia; SBH - Sabah; SWK - Sarawak; SEA - Southeast Asia; W - World;

References

Article
  1. Azman, N.M., Abdul Latip, N.S., Shahrul Anuar, M.S., Mohd Abdul Muin, M.A., Shafie, N.J. & Khairuddin, N.L. (2011). Avian Diversity and Feeding Guilds in a Secondary Forest, an Oil Palm Plantation and a Paddy Field in Riparian Areas of the Kerian River Basin, Perak, Malaysia. Tropical Life Sciences Research (TSLR) 22 (2): pp. 45–64
  2. Aziz, S.A., Chua, M.A.H. & Clements, G.R. (2019). Catch and release: Novel predation strategy by white-bellied sea-eagle (Haliaeetus leucogaster) on island flying fox (Pteropus hypomelanus) in Peninsular Malaysia demonstrates flying fox swimming ability. Journal of Bat Research & Conservation 12 (1): pp. 64-66
  3. Gumal, M.T. (2004). Diurnal home range and roosting trees of a maternity colony of Pteropus vampyrus natunae (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae) in Sedilu, Sarawak. Journal of Tropical Ecology 20 (3): pp. 247-258
  4. Hamza, A., David, G., McAfee, A. & Abdullah, M.T. (2018). Annotated Checklist of Avifauna in Pulau Bidong, Malaysia. Journal of Sustainability Science and Management 13 (1): pp. 103-116
  5. Hamza, A., Mamat, I.B.H. & Abdullah, M.T. (2019). Results of a seabird survey at the Southern Seribuat Archipelago, Johor, Malaysia. Marine Ornithology 47 (1): pp. 49-53
  6. Shahrul Anuar, M.S., Azman, N.M., Mohd Abdul Muin, M.A., Puan, C.L., Shafie, N.J., Omar, M.Y. & Azmi, N. (2017). Bird Survey of Gunung Basor Forest Reserve, Jeli, Kelantan, Peninsular Malaysia. : pp. 86-93
  7. Sodhi, N.S., Briffett, C., Lee, B.P.Y-H. & Subaraj, R. (1999). An Annotated Checklist of the Birds of Pulau Tioman, Peninsular Malaysia. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Supplements (6): pp. 125-130
  8. Suis, M.A.F., Miun, J., Tingkoi, L. & Nilus, R. (2019). Inventory of terrestrial mammals and birds in Sungai Pin Conservation Area, Kinabatangan. Sepilok Bulletin. 28: pp. 49-68
Book
  1. A Common Vision on Biodiversity in Government and the Development Process: Reference Document for Planners, Decision-Makers & Practitioners, Issue/No. , 2008. The Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Malaysia. pp. 111.
  2. Guidebook to the Biodiversity of Linting wetlands, Issue/No. , 2015. Wetlands International, Malaysia. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  3. Heritage of Kubang Badak: Guide to Discover Kubang Badak Biogeotrail, Issue/No. , 2018. Pusat Penyelidikan Langkawi, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia & Lembaga Pembangunan Langkawi, Malaysia. pp. 62.
  4. Island Life: A Natural History of Pulau Tengah, Johor, Malaysia, Issue/No. , 2018. WS Lifestyle, Singapore. pp. 163.
  5. MNS Bird Conservation Council. 2015. A Checklist of the Birds of Malaysia Second Edition, Issue/No. . Kuala Lumpur: Malaysian Nature Society - Bird Conservation Council, Malaysia. pp. 60.
  6. The Network of Protected Forests in Telupid, Sabah: Biodiversity & Conservation in the Heart of Borneo, Issue/No. , 2014. Sabah Forestry Department, Sabah, Malaysia. pp. 155.
  7. Abdul Rahman, A.R., Mohd Nasir, A.H., Mohamed Zin, Y., Richard, A.M. & Latiff, A. (2013). Banjaran Bintang Gunung Inas, Kedah: Pengurusan Hutan, Persekitaran Fizikal dan Kepelbagaian Biologi, Issue/No. . Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 245.
  8. Abdul Rahman, A.R., Koh, H.L., Muhamad, A., Wan Yusof, W.K. & Latiff, A. (2011). Hutan Simpan Melaka: Pengurusan Hutan, Persekitaran Fizikal, Kepelbagaian Biologi dan Socio-ekonomi, Issue/No. . Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 315.
  9. Asyraf, M., Mohd Abdul Muin, M.A., Shahrul Anuar, M.S. & Rahmad, Z. (2015). Pictorial Guide To The Plant and Bird Life of Byram Mangrove Forest, Penang, Issue/No. . Penerbit USM, Malaysia. pp. 190.
  10. Davison, G.W.H. & Chew, Y. F. (1995). A Photographic Guide to Birds of Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore, Issue/No. . New Holand Ltd. pp. 144.
  11. Francis, C.M. (1998). A Pocket Guide To The Birds of Borneo, Third Edition, Issue/No. . The Sabah Society, Malaysia.
  12. Gregory-Smith, R. (1995). The Birds of Sarawak: A Pocket Checklist, Issue/No. . Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Malaysia. pp. 21.
  13. Gumal, M.T., Hon, J. & Kong, D. (2008). Birds and Bats of Loagan Bunut National Park Sarawak, Malaysia, Issue/No. 11. Peat Swamp Forest Project, UNDP/GEF Funded (MAL/99/G31) in collaboration with the Sarawak Forest Department and Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS), Malaysia. pp. 1-105.
  14. Hazebroek, H.P., Adlin, T.Z. & Sinun, W. (2011). Danum Valley: The Rain Forest, Issue/No. . Natural History Publications (Borneo), Malaysia. pp. 615.
  15. Ilias, R., Aminurddin Ahmad, M., Yatim, H.S.H., Abu Hashim, A.K., Hassan, H., Othman, A. & Abidin, F.A.Z. (2007). Avifauna: Kuala Gula, Perak: Senarai Spesies, Issue/No. . Jabatan Perlindungan Hidupan Liar dan Taman Negara Malaysia (PERHILITAN), Malaysia. pp. 21.
  16. Ismail, A., Faid, R, Ilias, R. & Yasak, M.N. (2010). The Adaptability of Released Milky Stork in Kuala Gula, Perak, Issue/No. . Faculty of Science, Biology Dept., UPM and the Department of Wildlife and National Park, Peninsular Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. pp. 62.
  17. Jamaludin, H., Yatim, H.S.H., Abu Hashim, A.K., Saaban, S., Hassan, H., Othman, A. & Mohamad Rufino, B.M. (2007). Avifauna: Paya Indah Wetlands: Senarai Spesies, Issue/No. . Jabatan Perlindungan Hidupan Liar dan Taman Negara Malaysia (PERHILITAN), Malaysia. pp. 21.
  18. Jeyarajasingam, A., Norhayati, A., Yasser, M.A. & Ilias, R. (2016). Burung-burung Malaysia : Malaysia Biodiversity Information System (MyBIS), Issue/No. . Penerbit UKM, Bangi, Malaysia. pp. 165. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ] — [ | eBook (EPUB) ]
  19. Maimon, A. (2008). Biodiversity of Sungai Pulai: Ramsar Site, Johor, Issue/No. . Earth Observation Centre, Malaysia. pp. 97.
  20. Mohammad Khairi, A (2007). Taman Negara Pulau Pinang: Sinar Mutiara Belantara, Issue/No. . Jabatan Perlindungan Hidupan Liar dan Taman Negara, Malaysia. pp. 112.
  21. Myers, S. (2009). A Field Guide to the Birds of Borneo, Issue/No. . Simon Papps, Singapore. pp. 272.
  22. Nee, T. A. & Norhayati, N. (2018). Compendium of Facts and Figures. 3rd Edition, Volume 3, Issue/No. . Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Malaysia. pp. 174.
  23. Nik Ahmad Irwan Izzauddin, N. H., Suhaila, A.H. & Zarul, H.H. (2019). Royal Belum-Temengor Rainforest : The Hidden Treasure of Perak, Issue/No. . Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia and Kementerian Air, Tanah dan Sumber Asli. pp. 300.
  24. Omar, R. (2018). Birds of the Forests of Peninsular Malaysia: A Photographic Guide, Issue/No. . Strategic Information and Research Development Centre, Malaysia. pp. 351.
  25. Phang, S.M., Affendi, Y.A., Ooi, J.L.S. & Haji, A.J.M. (2008). Natural History of The Pulau Tioman Group of Islands, Issue/No. . Institute of Ocean and Earth Sciences (IOES), University of Malaya, Malaysia. pp. 292.
  26. Praveena, B.K. & Maria Arlene, J.A.S. (2013). Compendium of Facts and Figures. 2nd Edition, Issue/No. . Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Malaysia. pp. 161.
  27. Rajendran, S. & Jeyarajasingam, A. (2021). Malaysian Birds - A Glimpse, Issue/No. . Malaysian Nature Society (MNS), Malaysia. pp. 1-335.
  28. Rosla, M. (2014). Burung-burung di Semenanjung Malaysia: Hak Milik Kita yang Terlepas Pandang, Volume 1, Issue/No. . Red Door To Hunt, Malaysia. pp. 369.
  29. Sasekumar, A. & Chong, V.C. (2012). Mangrove and Coastal Environment of Selangor, Malaysia, Issue/No. . Universiti Malaya, Malaysia. pp. 290.
  30. Chan, K.S & See, C.M (2020). Coastal Mangrove Birds of Bagan Datuk, Perak, Issue/No. . Malaysian Nature Society, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. pp. 80.
  31. Geoforest Parks: Hanging Gardens of Langkawi, Issue/No. , 2005. Forestry Department Peninsular Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 117.
  32. Jeyarajasingam, A. (2012). A Field Guide to the Birds of Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore 2nd Edition, Issue/No. . Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 449.
Checklist
  1. Senarai Nama-nama Burung Semenanjung Malaysia dan Asia Tenggara (1981)
Unpublish
  1. Checklist of Biodiversity of Setiu (2019)

Acknowledgements :- Mr. Abdul Razak Mohd Nor Rasid, Mr. Ahmad Amir Firdaus Bin Mad Apandi, Ms. Aida Salihah Binti Abu Bakar, Ms. Ajla Rafidah Baharom, Mrs. Aziemah Binti Kinan, Mr. Badrul Amin Bin Jaffar, Ms. Fatin Qurratul 'ain Binti Saberam, Ms. Intan Nazira Binti Abdul Sani, Ms. Norayuni Binti Ramlee, Ms. Norazah Binti Norddin, Mrs. Nur Hazwanie Binti Abd Halim, Ms. Nur Razan Faiqah Binti Zahili, Ms. Nurfadzilah Bt Azmi, Ms. Nurfarhana Hizan Binti Hijas, Ms. Nurliyana Binti Abd Rahman, Ms. Nursyafiqa Madzlen, Mr. Tan Kok Kiat & Mr. Yasser Mohamed Arifin

Photo credit :- Koay Zhong Ying, Long Roslee Ngah, Mohd Suhaimi Bin Mohd Yusof, Muhammad Al Zahri & Rosli Omar

Species Citation :- Haliaeetus leucogaster. Malaysia Biodiversity Information System (MyBIS). Accessed via https://www.mybis.gov.my/sp/21564. [Retrieved 30 June 2022].

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Website Citation: MyBIS (2022). Malaysia Biodiversity Information System. Published on the Internet https://www.mybis.gov.my/, Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources, Malaysia Biodiversity Centre & Forest Research Institute Malaysia. [Retrieved 30 June 2022].