Native Animals

Leptoptilos javanicus

Lesser Adjutant
VU
Vulnerable
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
ver 3.1, 2017
QR Code
SSN 21735
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Taxonomy

Gallery  

Adult
Adult
Adult
Adult
Juvenile
Juvenile

Description

Leptoptilos javanicus is a very large stork measuring between 114 cm and 129 cm in length. It is commonly known as lesser adjutant and can be identified by its naked head, yellowish orange neck and hunched appearance. The upperparts of this stork are dark grey-black with dark underwings, while the underparts are white. The wedge-shaped bill is massive and yellowish with light corrugations on the base of its mandible. The breeding males show sexual dimorphism, in which they show coppery magenta spots on their wing coverts, small white triangular patch at the base of wings and redder head sides (IUCN, 2017). For the juveniles, the head and neck have more feather and their upperparts are less glossy. Usually, the lesser adjutant is solitary or in small loose groups and its main diet includes molluscs, fishes and crustaceans (Strange & Jeyarajasingam, 1993). Lesser adjutant can be found in South-East Asia and is restricted to mangrove habitats. It is listed as vulnerable under the IUCN Red List due to habitat loss and hunting pressure. 

Assessment

Year Published Assessment Red List Category Version
2017 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Vulnerable (VU)
3.1
2016 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Vulnerable (VU)
N/A
2013 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Vulnerable (VU)
N/A
2012 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Vulnerable (VU)
N/A
2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Vulnerable (VU)
N/A
2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Vulnerable (VU)
N/A
2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Vulnerable (VU)
N/A
2000 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Vulnerable (VU)
N/A
1996 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Vulnerable (VU)
N/A
1994 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Vulnerable (VU)
N/A

Biodiversity Experts

Profile
Abdul Rahman (Mr.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
  • Birds
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Ecosystems
  • Environment
  • Forest
  • Protected Areas
  • Wildlife Trade
  • PM
Azmi Mat Ali (Mr.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
  • Birds (Taxonomy)
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Wildlife Trade
  • PM
Farah Shafawati Mohd Taib (Dr.)
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM)
  • Birds
  • Mammals
  • Rodents
  • Treeshrews
  • Squirrels
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Data Analysis
  • Ecosystems
  • Taxonomy
  • PM
Ismail Bin Hj. Mamat (Mr.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
  • Birds
  • Biodiversity
  • Protected Areas
  • Invasive Alien Species
  • PM
Meor Amran Bin Meor Zulkifilee (Mr.)
Birdgroup Taman Negara (BGTN)
  • Birds
  • Business
  • Environment
  • Forest
  • Management
  • Tourism
  • PM
Mohammad Shahfiz Azman (Mr.)
Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM)
  • Amphibians
  • Mammals
  • Birds
  • Awareness
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Ecosystems
  • Environment
  • Forest
  • Landscape
  • Law and Policy
  • Management
  • Protected Areas
  • Science
  • Systematics
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
Mohd Abdul Muin Bin Md Akil (Mr.)
Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM)
  • Amphibians
  • Birds
  • Reptiles
  • Snakes
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Evolution
  • Genetics
  • Molecular
  • Protected Areas
  • Climate Change
  • Invasive Alien Species
Rahmah Binti Ilias (Mrs.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
  • Birds
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Protected Areas
  • Invasive Alien Species
  • PM
Rosli Hashim (Prof. Dr.)
University of Malaya (UM)
  • Birds (Ecology)
  • Mammals (Ecology)
  • Spiders
  • Insects
  • Biodiversity
  • Protected Areas
  • PM
  • W
Rosli Ramli (Assoc. Prof. Dr.)
University of Malaya (UM)
  • Mammals (Ecology)
  • Birds
  • Biodiversity
  • Digital Sequence Information (DSI)
  • Protected Areas
  • Marine & Coastal
  • PM
  • W
Syaizwan Zahmir Zulkifli (Dr.)
Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM)
  • Birds (Ecology)
  • Fishes (Ecology)
  • Molluscs (Ecology)
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Ecosystems
  • Marine & Coastal
  • Water
PM - Peninsular Malaysia; SBH - Sabah; SWK - Sarawak; SEA - Southeast Asia; W - World;

References

Book
  1. Field Guide to the Waterbirds of ASEAN, 2018. ASEAN-Korea Environmental Cooperation Unit (AKECU), South Korea. pp. 300.
  2. Looking at Loagan - A Journey Into Loagan Bunut National Park, Sarawak, 2006. Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia. pp. 75.
  3. MNS Bird Conservation Council. 2015. A Checklist of the Birds of Malaysia Second Edition. Kuala Lumpur: Malaysian Nature Society - Bird Conservation Council, Malaysia. pp. 60.
  4. Tan, K.K., Nurfarhana-Hizan, H. & Abdul Razak, M.N.R. (2020). Threatened Bird Species of Malaysia. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Malaysia. pp. 42. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  5. Jamaludin, H., Yatim, H.S.H., Abu Hashim, A.K., Saaban, S., Hassan, H., Othman, A. & Mohamad Rufino, B.M. (2007). Avifauna: Paya Indah Wetlands: Senarai Spesies. Jabatan Perlindungan Hidupan Liar dan Taman Negara Malaysia (PERHILITAN), Malaysia. pp. 21.
  6. Sasekumar, A. & Chong, V.C. (2012). Mangrove and Coastal Environment of Selangor, Malaysia. Universiti Malaya, Malaysia. pp. 290.
  7. Francis, C.M. (1998). A Pocket Guide To The Birds of Borneo, Third Edition. The Sabah Society, Malaysia.
  8. Rajendran, S. & Jeyarajasingam, A. (2021). Malaysian Birds - A Glimpse. Malaysian Nature Society (MNS), Malaysia. pp. 1-335.
  9. Maimon, A. (2008). Biodiversity of Sungai Pulai: Ramsar Site, Johor. Earth Observation Centre, Malaysia. pp. 97.
  10. Asyraf, M., Mohd Abdul Muin, M.A., Shahrul Anuar, M.S. & Rahmad, Z. (2015). Pictorial Guide To The Plant and Bird Life of Byram Mangrove Forest, Penang. Penerbit USM, Malaysia. pp. 190.
  11. Myers, S. (2009). A Field Guide to the Birds of Borneo. Simon Papps, Singapore. pp. 272.
  12. Jeyarajasingam, A., Norhayati, A., Yasser, M.A. & Ilias, R. (2016). Burung-burung Malaysia : Malaysia Biodiversity Information System (MyBIS). Penerbit UKM, Bangi, Malaysia. pp. 165. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) | eBook (EPUB) ]
  13. Omar, R. (2018). Birds of the Forests of Peninsular Malaysia: A Photographic Guide. Strategic Information and Research Development Centre, Malaysia. pp. 351.
  14. Shaharuddin, M.I., Azahar, M., Razani, U., Kamaruzaman, A.B., Lim, K.L., Suhaili, R., Jalil, M.S. & Latiff, A. (2005). Sustainable Management of Matang Mangroves: 100 Years and Beyond. Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 531.
  15. Rosla, M. (2014). Burung-burung di Semenanjung Malaysia: Hak Milik Kita yang Terlepas Pandang, Volume 1. Red Door To Hunt, Malaysia. pp. 369.
  16. Rosla, M. (2014). Burung-burung di Semenanjung Malaysia: Hak Milik Kita Yang Terlepas Pandang, Volume 2. Red Door To Hunt, Malaysia. pp. 359.
  17. Jeyarajasingam, A. & Pearson, A. (2012). A Field Guide to the Birds of Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore 2nd Edition. Oxford University Press, Oxford. pp. 449.
  18. Ilias, R., Aminurddin Ahmad, M., Yatim, H.S.H., Abu Hashim, A.K., Hassan, H., Othman, A. & Abidin, F.A.Z. (2007). Avifauna: Kuala Gula, Perak: Senarai Spesies. Jabatan Perlindungan Hidupan Liar dan Taman Negara Malaysia (PERHILITAN), Malaysia. pp. 21.
Report
  1. Report On Habitat And Ecological Research After Wavebreaker Project At Tanjung Piai Johor National Park. Perbadanan Taman Negara (Johor), Malaysia.
Unpublish
  1. Checklist of Biodiversity of Setiu (2019)

Acknowledgements :- Mr. Abdul Razak Mohd Nor Rasid, Mr. Ahmad Amir Firdaus Bin Mad Apandi, Ms. Aida Salihah Binti Abu Bakar, Ms. Ajla Rafidah Baharom, Mr. Allen Jeyarajasingam, Ms. Amirah Hasanah Binti Mazlan, Mrs. Aziemah Binti Kinan, Ms. Fatin Qurratul 'ain Binti Saberam, Ms. Norayuni Binti Ramlee, Ms. Norazah Binti Norddin, Ms. Nur Razan Faiqah Binti Zahili, Ms. Nurfarhana Hizan Binti Hijas, Ms. Nursyafiqa Madzlen, Mr. Tan Kok Kiat & Mr. Yasser Mohamed Arifin

Citation :- Leptoptilos javanicus. Malaysia Biodiversity Information System (MyBIS). https://www.mybis.gov.my/sp/21735. Downloaded on 20 June 2021.

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