Native Animals

Betta livida

Emerald-spot Fighting Fish
EN
Endangered
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
ver 3.1, 2019
QR Code
SSN 23374
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Taxonomy

Description

The fighting fish, commonly known as Betta, is a freshwater ray-finned fish found in the Southeast Asia region. Betta is usually small in size, but they are energetic and colorful. Currently, there are around 75 species of Betta recorded worldwide, with Malaysia having approximately 28 species, with 10 of them being endemic.

The emerald-spot fighting fish or Betta livida, is one of the endangered fighting fishes, which is rare and endemic to the northern Selangor and southern Perak states in Peninsular Malaysia. It belongs to the family Osphronemidae and is locally known as ikan picat or laga sungai besar in Malay (Zakaria-Ismail et al., 2019). It inhabits peat swamp areas and blackwater streams, which are highly acidic and have a pH value of five or less. In general, this species occurs in well-shaded shallow and stagnant water, which is less than one meter (Zakaria-Ismail et al., 2019).

The species epithet is derived from the Latin word, lividus meaning jealousy, which refers to the green eyes of this fish species. The flanks of this species have an iridescent green blotch. Betta livida exhibits sexual dimorphism, whereby the males are more colorful and have longer dorsal fins than the females when they reach maturity. Also, the posterior rays of the male can reach beyond the base of the caudal fin and up to one-third of the caudal fin (Zakaria-Ismail et al., 2019). It can grow up to 36.3 mm in length. Its diets include insects and small invertebrates (Ng & Kottelat, 1992).

Assessment

Year Published Assessment Red List Category Version
2019 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Endangered (EN)
3.1
1996 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Endangered (EN)
2.3

Biodiversity Experts

Profile
Amirrudin Bin Ahmad (Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT)
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Amy Then Yee Hui (Dr.)
University of Malaya (UM)
  • Fishes (Ecology)
  • Seahorses (Ecology)
  • Mammals (Ecology)
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  • Marine & Coastal
  • PM
  • W
Annie Christianus (Dr.)
Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM)
  • Fishes
  • Agriculture
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  • Marine & Coastal
  • Science
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  • Water
  • PM
  • SBH
Aziz Bin Arshad (Prof. Dr.)
Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM)
  • Fishes (Taxonomy)
  • Crustaceans (Taxonomy)
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Charles Leh Moi Ung (Dr.)
Sarawak Museum Department (JMS)
  • Fishes
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Chong Ving Ching (Prof. Dr.)
University of Malaya (UM)
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Haslawati Baharuddin (Dr.)
Fisheries Research Institute Malaysia (FRI)
  • Fishes (Ecology)
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Jeffrine Rovie Ryan Japning (Mr.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
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Kaviarasu Munian (Mr.)
Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM)
  • Reptiles (Ecology)
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Kayal Vizi Karuppannan (Mrs.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
  • Elephants
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Khaironizam Md Zain (Dr.)
Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM)
  • Fishes
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Khairul Adha Bin A. Rahim (Assoc. Prof. Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS)
  • Fishes
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Mohammad Noor Amal Azmai (Assoc. Prof. Dr.)
Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM)
  • Fishes
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Mohd Ilham Norhakim Lokman (Mr.)
  • Fishes
  • Fishes
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Mohd Shafiq Bin Zakeyuddin (Dr.)
TNB Research Sdn Bhd (TNBR)
  • Fishes
  • Biodiversity
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  • Management
  • Tourism
  • PM
Seah Ying Giat (Assoc. Prof. Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT)
  • Fishes (Taxonomy)
  • Biodiversity
  • Marine & Coastal
  • Molecular
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
Siti Azizah Mohd Nor (Prof. Dr.)
Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM)
  • Crustaceans
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  • Molluscs
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  • Marine & Coastal
  • Molecular
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Siti Tafzilmeriam Sheikh Abdul Kadir (Mrs.)
Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT)
  • Fishes
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  • Environment
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  • PM
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Syaizwan Zahmir Zulkifli (Dr.)
Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM)
  • Birds (Ecology)
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Zarul Hazrin Hashim (Dr.)
Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM)
  • Fishes (Ecology)
  • Biodiversity
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  • Environment
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  • Water
  • Marine & Coastal
  • Climate Change
  • Invasive Alien Species
  • PM
  • SWK
PM - Peninsular Malaysia; SBH - Sabah; SWK - Sarawak; SEA - Southeast Asia; W - World;

References

Article
  1. Chong, V.C., Lee, P.K.Y. & Lau, C.M. (2010). Diversity, extinction risk and conservation of Malaysian fishes. Journal of Fish Biology 76 (9): pp. 2009-2066
  2. Ng, P. K. L. & Kottelat, M. (1992). Betta livida, a new fighting fish (Teleostei: Belontiidae) from blackwater swamps in Peninsular Malaysia. Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters, 3(2): 177-182.

Acknowledgements :- Ms. Aida Salihah Binti Abu Bakar, Mrs. Aziemah Binti Kinan, Ms. Mira Farzana Binti Mohamad Mokhtar, Ms. Nurfarhana Hizan Binti Hijas, Ms. Nursyafiqa Madzlen, Mr. Tan Kok Kiat, Mr. Yasser Mohamed Arifin & Dr. Zahar Azuar Zakaria

Photo credit :- M.I.Norhakim Lokman, Muhammad Rasul Abdullah Halim & Zahar Azuar Zakaria

Species Citation :- Betta livida. Malaysia Biodiversity Information System (MyBIS). Accessed via https://www.mybis.gov.my/sp/23374. [Retrieved 08 August 2022].

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