Native Plants

Aquilaria malaccensis

Karas
CR
Critically Endangered
IUCN Red List
ver 3.1, 2018
VU
Vulnerable
Malaysia Plant Red List
2010
QR Code
SSN 23467
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Taxonomy

  • Kingdom
  • Division
  • Class
  • Order
  • Family
  • Genus
  • Species
    malaccensis Lam.
  • Vernacular Name
  • Residential
    Native
The taxanomic status is pending for approval

Gallery  

Flower
Fruits
Trunk
Leaf
Trunk
Trunk
Leaf

Description

Agarwood, or locally known as karas in Malay is a tree species that could grow up to 60 cm in diameter. This species occurs on plain hillsides and ridges to 750 m altitude throughout Peninsular Malaysia except in Perlis and Kedah, while it occurs in the lowland mixed dipterocarp forests up to 270 m altitude in Borneo (Yong et al., 2011). This species is also absent from Sarawak, while other species of this genus are reported to be generally rare (Tawan, 2004). Besides Malaysia, karas tree is also commonly found in the lowland forests of Indonesia, the Philippines, Myanmar and India (Corner, 1988). 

The karas tree produces aloes wood or gaharu which is fragrant in nature and is a highly sought-after essential oil in the international trade. The production of gaharu is believed to be due to the pathological infection and reaction of the wood caused by injuries.Typically, gaharu is used as incense in religious ceremonies and due to this, gaharu is highly sought-after and priced both locally and internationally (Desch 1954, Gianno & Kochummen, 1981). The timber, a light hardwood, is suitable for veneer making, packing boxes, indoor light construction and possesses native medicinal values for treating asthma and body healing properties (Burkill, 1996; Whitemore, 1972; Wong, 1978; Lok & Ahmad Zuhaidi, 1996; Anonymous, 1998). 

However, most of the karas tree on the market is collected from the wild since the few plantations set up in the early 1900s are either under serious pressure or have been destroyed (IUCN, 1998). For Malaysia, the karas tree has been categorised as Vulnerable due to unsustainable harvest and habitat loss or degradation. Excessive damage induced on the uncontrolled harvest from tree trunks are causing the populations of this species to become Vulnerable to extinction (Chua et al., 2010; Yong et al., 2011).

Habitats

No Description Suitability Seasonality
1
Forest → Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland Forest
Suitable Unknown
References : http://www.iucnredlist.org/technical-documents/classification-schemes/habitats-classification-scheme-ver3

Assessment

Biodiversity Experts

Profile
Ahmad Aldrie Amir (Dr.)
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM)
  • Vascular
  • Biodiversity
  • Climate Change
  • Conservation
  • Ecosystems
  • Environment
  • Evolution
  • Forest
  • History
  • Law and Policy
  • Management
  • Marine & Coastal
  • Protected Areas
  • Science
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
  • W
Anisah Lee Abdullah (Assoc. Prof. Dr.)
Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM)
  • Coral Reefs
  • Vascular
  • Biodiversity
  • Climate Change
  • Conservation
  • Ecosystems
  • Environment
  • Geoinformatics
  • Management
  • Marine & Coastal
  • Protected Areas
  • Science
  • Technology
  • Water
  • PM
  • SBH
Asyraf Mansor (Dr.)
Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM)
  • Palms
  • Vascular (Ecology)
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Ecosystems
  • Environment
  • Evolution
  • Forest
  • PM
Chan Yoke Mui (Ms.)
Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM)
  • Palms (Ecology)
  • Vascular (Ecology)
  • Conservation
  • Biodiversity
  • Forest
  • Genetics
  • PM
Chong Ju Lian (Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT)
  • Mammals (Ecology)
  • Vascular (Ecology)
  • Invasive Alien Species
  • Protected Areas
  • Digital Sequence Information (DSI)
  • Marine & Coastal
  • Climate Change
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
  • W
Kartini Binti Saibeh (Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS)
  • Vascular
  • Agricultural
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • SBH
Mohamad Azani Alias (Assoc. Prof. Dr.)
Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM)
  • Vascular (Taxonomy)
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Climate Change
  • Protected Areas
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
Nazahatul Anis Amaludin (Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Kelantan (UMK)
  • Vascular (Ecology)
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • PM
Nor Ezzawanis Abdullah Thani (Ms.)
Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM)
  • Vascular (Taxonomy)
  • Digital Sequence Information (DSI)
  • PM
Nur Kyariatul Syafinie Abdul Majid (Ms.)
Universiti Malaysia Kelantan (UMK)
  • Vascular (Ecology)
  • Biodiversity
  • Climate Change
  • Conservation
  • Forest
  • Protected Areas
  • PM
Nur Supardi Md Noor (Dr.)
Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM)
  • Palms
  • Vascular
  • Biodiversity
  • Climate Change
  • Conservation
  • Ecosystems
  • Environment
  • Forest
  • Management
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
  • W
Rusea Go (Prof. Dr.)
Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM)
  • Orchids (Taxonomy)
  • Vascular (Taxonomy)
  • Vascular (Ecology)
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Environment
  • Forest
  • Management
  • Protected Areas
  • Climate Change
  • Invasive Alien Species
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
Tam Sheh May (Dr.)
Taylor's University
  • Orchids
  • Vascular
  • Biodiversity
  • Data Analysis
  • Evolution
  • Genetics
  • Molecular
  • PM
Tan Swee Lian (Dr.)
Academy of Sciences Malaysia (ASM)
  • Vascular (Ecology)
  • Agricultural
  • Biodiversity
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
PM - Peninsular Malaysia; SBH - Sabah; SWK - Sarawak; SEA - Southeast Asia; W - World;

References

Article
  1. Ang, L.H. (2017). Successful Greening Models of Some Disturbed Sites in Peninsular Malaysia. Seminar on Reclamation, Rehabilitation and Restoration of Disturbed Sites: Planting of National and IUCN Red List Species, 15-17 August 2017, Kuala Lumpur (14): pp. 6-14
  2. Lok, E.H., Chang, Y.S. & Yusoff, A.M. (1999). Early Survival and Growth in Field Trials of Aquilaria malaccensis (karas) and Azadirachta excelsa (Sentang). Journal of Tropical Forest Science 11 (4): pp. 852-854
  3. Wong, K.M., Low, Y.W., Aziz, A.O., Lepun, P., Zahid, M.S., Manickam, S., Zulkapli, I. & Chew, K.L. (2005). Where the Rhino Roams : A Survey of the Vegetation of the Selai Area in the Endau-Rompin National Park, Johor, Malaysia. The Forests and Biodiversity of Selai Endau-Rompin. pp. 17-26
  4. Chua, L.S.L. (2008). Agarwood (Aquilaria malaccensis) in Malaysia. : pp. 17
  5. Ang, L.H., Ho, W.M. & Tang, L.K. (2014). A Depository of Lowland Forest Tree Species Established on a Brown-Filled Site in Ara Damansara, Selangor, Malaysia. Journal of Wildlife and Parks 29: pp. 55-60
  6. Ang, L.H., Ho, W.M. & Tang, L.K. (2017). Domestication of Ten Endemic, Endangered and Threatened Tree Species in a Degraded Terrestrial Ecosystem in Peninsular Malaysia. Seminar on Reclamation, Rehabilitation and Restoration of Disturbed Sites: Planting of National and IUCN Red List Species, 15-17 August 2017, Kuala Lumpur (14): pp. 114-118
  7. Ang, L.H., Ho, W.M., Tang, L.K. & Hazarimmah, S.O. (2017). Increasing Tree Diversity Index through Planting of 30 Indigenous Rainforest Tree on a 5 ha Slime Tailings. An Introduction to ABS: Access to biological resources and the sharing of benefits arising from their utilisation: pp. 102-106
  8. Ang, L.H., Ho, W.M., Tang, L.K., Kang, H.S. & Lee, D.K. (2017). Survival and Vegetative Growth of Some Selected Rainforest Tree Species inter-planted under Hopea odorata Stand at Slime Tailings in Peninsular Malaysia. Seminar on Reclamation, Rehabilitation and Restoration of Disturbed Sites: Planting of National and IUCN Red List Species, 15-17 August 2017, Kuala Lumpur (14): pp. 107-113
  9. Ho, W.M., Tang, L.K., Ang, L.H., Kang, H.S. & Lee, D.K. (2014). Enrichment Planting in a Greened Slime Tailings in Peninsular Malaysia. Journal of Wildlife and Parks 29: pp. 73-76
  10. Lok, E.H. & Ahmad Zuhaidi, Y. (2017). Cultivation and Management Practices of Aquilaria for Agarwood in Malaysia. Seminar on Reclamation, Rehabilitation and Restoration of Disturbed Sites: Planting of National and IUCN Red List Species, 15-17 August 2017, Kuala Lumpur (14): pp. 44-49
  11. Nor Azah, M.A., Saidatul Husni, S., Mailina, J., Sahrim, L., Abdul Majid, J. & Mohd Faridz, Z. (2013). Classification of Agarwood (Gaharu) by Resin Content. Journal of Tropical Forest Science 25 (2): pp. 213-219
  12. Siti Suhaila, A.R., Norihan, M.S., Norwati, M., Nor Azah, M.A., Mahani, M.C., Parameswari, N., Kodi, I.K., Mailina, J., Azrina, A., Nor Hasnida, H., Haliza, I., Nazirah, A. & Muhd Fuad, Y. (2015). Aquilaria malaccensis Polyploids as Improved Planting Materials. 27 (3): pp. 376-387
  13. Sulaiman, N., Ida Idayu, M., Ramlan, A.Z., Nur Fashya, M., Nor Farahiyah, A.N., Mailina, J. & Nor Azah, M.A. (2015). Effects of Extraction Methods on Yield and Chemical Compounds of Gaharu (Aquilaria malaccensis). Journal of Tropical Forest Science 27 (3): pp. 413-419
  14. Salleh, N., Azeman, S., Kiew, R., Kamin, I. & Chung, R.C.K. (2017). Plant Checklist of the Bukit Nanas Forest Reserve, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. One Ecosystem. 2: pp. 41 — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  15. Ho, W.M., Ang, L.H., Tang, L.K. & Siti Zaharah, M.I. (2017). Can ex-tin mine be a depository for indigenous and red list species?. Seminar on Reclamation, Rehabilitation and Restoration of Disturbed Sites: Planting of National and IUCN Red List Species, 15-17 August 2017, Kuala Lumpur (14): pp. 119-123
Book
  1. Malaysian Threatened and Rare Tree: Identification and Landscape Guideline, 2017. Sime Darby Property Berhad, Petaling Jaya, Malaysia. pp. 98. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  2. Yong, W.S.Y., Chua, L.S.L., Suhaida, M. & Aslina, B. (2011). Forest Research Institute Malaysia: A Sanctuary for Threatened Trees, Issue/No. 130. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Malaysia. pp. 91.
  3. Shaharuddin, M.I., Dahalan, H.T., Abdullah Sani, Shafie, Jalil, M.S., Faridah-Hanum, I. & Latiff, A. (2005). Taman Negeri Gunung Stong, Kelantan: Pengurusan, Persekitaran Fizikal, Biologi dan Sosio-ekonomi. Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 442.
  4. Abdul Rahman, A.R., Mohd Nasir, A.H., Azmi, N., Nor Hasliza, M.B. & Latiff, A. (2014). Hutan Simpan Gunung Tebu, Terengganu: Pengurusan Hutan, Persekitaran Fizikal dan Kepelbagaian Biologi. Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 343.
  5. Abdul Rahman, A.R., Koh, H.L., Muhamad, A., Wan Yusof, W.K. & Latiff, A. (2011). Hutan Simpan Melaka: Pengurusan Hutan, Persekitaran Fizikal, Kepelbagaian Biologi dan Socio-ekonomi. Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 315.
  6. Oldfield, S., Lusty, C. & MacKinven, A. (1998). The World List of Threatened Trees. World Conservation Press, Cambridge, UK.. pp. 1-628.
  7. Adnan, M., Zainuddin, A.F., Hamzah, M.A., Moorthy, M. & Mohamad Zaki, M.I. (2018). Koleksi Pokok Taman Botani Kepong. Institut Penyelidikan Perhutanan Malaysia (FRIM), Malaysia. pp. 1-234.
  8. Chang, Y.S., Mazura, M.P. & Nik Musa'adah, M. (2008). Plant, Health and Man - Past, Present and Future . Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Kepong, Selangor Darul Ehsan , Malaysia. pp. 343.
  9. Mohd. Rizal, S., Na'aman, J., Jalil, M.S., Nizam, M.S., Latiff, A. & Azahar, M. (2006). Gunung Mandi Angin, Terengganu: Pengurusan, Persekitaran Fizikal, Kepelbagaian Biologi dan Pelancongan Ekologi. Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 500.
  10. Shaharuddin, M.I., Che, H.H., Mohd. Puat, Dahalan, Jalil, M.S., Norhaidi, Y. & Latiff, A. (2005). Hutan Simpan Ulu Muda, Kedah: Pengurusan, Persekitaran Fizikal Dan Biologi. Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 310.
  11. Ong, H.C. (2004). Tumbuhan Liar: Khasiat & Kegunaan Lain. Utusan Publications & Distribution Sdn. Bhd., Malaysia. pp. 241.
  12. Praveena, B.K. & Maria Arlene, J.A.S. (2013). Compendium of Facts and Figures. 2nd Edition. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Malaysia. pp. 161.
  13. Soepadmo, E., Saw, L.G. & Chung, R.C.K. (2004). Tree Flora of Sabah and Sarawak, Volume 5. Sabah Forestry Department, Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Sarawak Forestry Department, Malaysia. pp. 528.
  14. Shaharuddin, M.I., Sahidin, A.R., Nor, S.M., Jalil, M.S., Razani, U., Nik Mohd. Shah, N.M. & Latiff, A. (2005). Gunung Nuang, Selangor: Persekitaran Fizikal dan Kepelbagaian Biologi. Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 221.
  15. T. Marina, T. Ibrahim & Shamsul, K. (2009). Kepelbagaian Biologi Flora, Fauna dan Nilai Ekonomi Hutan Simpan Tranum, Pahang. Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 140.
  16. Chua, L.S.L., Lee, S.L., Lau, K.H., Zakaria, N.F., Tnah, L.H., Lee, C.T., Ng, C.H. & Ng, K.K.S. (2016). Conservation Action Plan for the Threatened Agarwood Species Aquilaria Malaccensis (Thymelaeaceae) in Peninsular Malaysia. Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 1-74.
  17. Wong, K.M. (2001). Medicinal Plants, Rain Forests and Us. pp. 38.
Chapter in book
  1. Milow, P., Malek, S. & Ramli, M.R. (March 2017). Medicinal Plants of the Indigenous Tribes in Peninsular Malaysia: Current and Future Perspectives. In El-Shemy, H. (ed.) Active Ingredients from Aromatic and Medicinal Plants. InTechOpen. pp. 14.
Magazine/Bulletin
  1. Bio-Bulletin, Vol. 2 (June 2014). School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  2. Conservation Malaysia (24), 2016. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Malaysia. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  3. Conservation Malaysia (26), 2017. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Malaysia. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  4. Heortia vitessoides, An Agarwood (Karas) Defoliator (72), 2014. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Malaysia.
  5. Conservation Malaysia (11), 2010. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Malaysia. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  6. Malaysian and Indonesian Timbers Equivalent Names. Timber Technology Bulletin: Compilation of Timber Technology Bulletins 1995-2015 (57), 2016. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Malaysia.
Newsletter
  1. Flora of Malaysia i-Newsletter Part 3. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM). (2013, 10). Retrive December 29, 2017, from https://www.mybis.gov.my/art/1985 — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  2. Ida Suraini, A.S. (2015, December). FRIM in FOCUS. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM). Retrive April 14, 2016, from https://www.mybis.gov.my/art/191
  3. Ida Suraini, A.S. (2016, March). FRIM in FOCUS. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM). Retrive April 14, 2016, from https://www.mybis.gov.my/art/572
  4. Ida Suraini, A.S. (2009, June). FRIM in FOCUS. Forest Research Institute Malaysia. Retrive November 18, 2015, from https://www.mybis.gov.my/art/139
  5. Ida Suraini, A.S. (2014, June). FRIM in FOCUS. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM). Retrive November 13, 2015, from https://www.mybis.gov.my/art/117
  6. Ida Suraini, A.S. (2015, June). FRIM in FOCUS. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM). Retrive September 28, 2016, from https://www.mybis.gov.my/art/112
  7. Ida Suraini, A.S. (2010, September). FRIM in FOCUS. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM). Retrive November 09, 2015, from https://www.mybis.gov.my/art/99
  8. Veronica, P. (2005, March). FRIM in FOCUS. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM). Retrive November 19, 2015, from https://www.mybis.gov.my/art/153
Newspaper Article
  1. "Pokok kebangsaan pupuk semangat cinta hutan". 26 June 2018. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
Proceeding
  1. Conservation, Management and Development of Forest Resources: Proceedings of the Malaysia-United Kingdom Programme Workshop, 21-24 October 1996, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (1996)

Acknowledgements :- Mr. Ahmad Amir Firdaus Bin Mad Apandi, Ms. Aida Salihah Binti Abu Bakar, Ms. Ajla Rafidah Baharom, Ms. Amirah Hasanah Binti Mazlan, Ms. Aziemah Binti Kinan, Mr. Badrul Amin Bin Jaffar, Mrs. Hazlina Ali, Ms. Heng Pooi San, Ms. Mira Farzana Binti Mohamad Mokhtar, Mr. Muhammad Izzuddin Bin Hazan, Mr. Nabil Arif Bin Abdul Naim, Mrs. Noor Ashikin Binti Hj. Mohamad, Ms. Noorkhalilie Binti Che Abd Aziz, Ms. Norayuni Binti Ramlee, Ms. Nur Diana Bt Mohd Rusdi, Ms. Nur Hazwanie Binti Abd Halim, Ms. Nur Syahirah Binti Abd Hamid, Ms. Nurfadzilah Bt Azmi, Ms. Nurfarhana Hizan Binti Hijas, Ms. Nurul Aimi Amirah Binti Mohd Zaki, Ms. Siti Zubaidah Binti Abdul Latif, Mr. Tan Kok Kiat & Mr. Yasser Mohamed Arifin

Citation :- Aquilaria malaccensis. Malaysia Biodiversity Information System (MyBIS). https://www.mybis.gov.my/sp/23467. Downloaded on 20 October 2019.

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