Native Animals

Scleropages formosus

Arowana
EN
Endangered
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
ver 3.1, 2019
QR Code
SSN 24517
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Taxonomy

  • Kingdom
  • Phylum
  • Class
  • Order
  • Family
  • Genus
  • Specific Epithet
    formosus (Müller & Schlegel, 1844)
  • Common Name
  • Residential
    Native
The taxonomic status is pending for approval

Gallery  

Description

Scleropages formosus, also known as the "Asian Arowana" or the "Dragon Fish". This Asian Arowana is commonly known as a symbol of prosperity, success, and abundance. Scleropages formosus holds significant culture in Malaysia, Indonesia, and Thailand. This freshwater ornamental fish is under the Osteoglossidae family and is considered endangered (EN) (Larson & Vidthayanon, 2019). It is due to the loss of natural habitat and the overexploitation of resources. This species exhibits prominent dorsal and anal fins. Also, it has remarkable dimensions as it can attain a maximum length of 1.1 m and weigh more than 7 kg. According to Goh & Chua (1999), the dominant colours observed in Asian Arowana are red, gold, and green. This species is specifically adapted to thrive in wetland ecosystems, floodplain habitats, forest streams and peat-adjacent areas, sluggish river environments or tannin-stained blackwater streams (Rainboth,1996). The normal breeding season of this fish is different across the country; for example, it breeds between March to April in Cambodia (Rowley et al., 2008), but its breeding season starts in August in Malaysia (Scott & Fuller, 1976). 

Habitats

No Description Suitability Seasonality
1
Wetlands → Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands [generally over 8 ha]
Suitable Unknown
2
Wetlands → Permanent Freshwater Lakes [over 8 ha]
Suitable Unknown
3
Wetlands → Permanent Rivers, Streams, Creeks [includes waterfalls]
Suitable Unknown
References : http://www.iucnredlist.org/technical-documents/classification-schemes/habitats-classification-scheme-ver3

Assessment

Year Published Assessment Red List Category Version
2019 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Endangered (EN)
3.1
2011 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Endangered (EN)
3.1
1996 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Endangered (EN)
N/A

Specimen

Collection Center   Total
1

Digital Specimen

Biodiversity Experts

Profile
Amir Shah Ruddin Md Sah (Assoc. Prof. Dr.)
Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM)
  • Fishes (Ecology)
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Ecology
  • Ecosystems
  • Environment
  • Marine & Coastal
  • Water
  • PM
Amirrudin Bin Ahmad (Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT)
  • Amphibians
  • Dragonflies and Damselflies
  • Fishes
  • Reptiles
  • Biodiversity
  • Data Analysis
  • Digital Sequence Information (DSI)
  • Living Modified Organism (LMO)
  • Marine & Coastal
  • Protected Areas
  • Invasive Alien Species
  • PM
Amy Then Yee Hui (Dr.)
University of Malaya (UM)
  • Fishes (Ecology)
  • Seahorses (Ecology)
  • Mammals (Ecology)
  • Protected Areas
  • Marine & Coastal
  • PM
  • W
Annie Christianus (Dr.)
Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM)
  • Fishes
  • Agriculture
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Marine & Coastal
  • Science
  • Technology
  • Water
  • PM
  • SBH
Aziz Bin Arshad (Prof. Dr.)
Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM)
  • Fishes (Taxonomy)
  • Crustaceans (Taxonomy)
  • Fishes (Ecology)
  • Crustaceans (Ecology)
  • Molluscs (Ecology)
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Marine & Coastal
  • PM
Charles Leh Moi Ung (Dr.)
Sarawak Museum Department (JMS)
  • Fishes
  • Turtle, Tortoise, and Terrapin
  • Crustaceans
  • Biodiversity
  • Science
  • SWK
Chong Ving Ching (Prof. Dr.)
University of Malaya (UM)
  • Fishes
  • Agriculture
  • Marine & Coastal
  • Environment
  • Biodiversity
  • PM
Darlina Md Naim (Assoc. Prof. Dr.)
Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM)
  • Fishes
  • Biodiversity
  • Biosecurity
  • Conservation
  • Ecology
  • Evolution
  • Genetics
  • Marine & Coastal
  • Systematics
Haslawati Baharuddin (Dr.)
Fisheries Research Institute Malaysia (FRI)
  • Fishes (Ecology)
  • Biodiversity
  • Invasive Alien Species
  • Conservation
  • Agriculture
  • Biological Resource
  • Climate Change
  • Digital Sequence Information (DSI)
  • Ecology
  • Environment
  • Systematics
  • PM
Jeffrine Rovie Ryan Japning (Mr.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
  • Monkeys
  • Fishes
  • Mammals
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Data Analysis
  • Evolution
  • Genetics
  • Molecular
  • Protected Areas
  • Science
  • Technology
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
Kaviarasu Munian (Mr.)
Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM)
  • Reptiles (Ecology)
  • Amphibians (Ecology)
  • Fishes (Ecology)
  • PM
Kayal Vizi Karuppannan (Mrs.)
Department of Wildlife and National Parks (PERHILITAN)
  • Elephants
  • Fishes
  • Mammals
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Evolution
  • Genetics
  • Molecular
  • Protected Areas
  • Digital Sequence Information (DSI)
  • PM
Khaironizam Md Zain (Dr.)
Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM)
  • Fishes
  • Insects
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Ecosystems
  • Science
  • PM
Khairul Adha Bin A. Rahim (Assoc. Prof. Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS)
  • Fishes
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Ecosystems
  • Invasive Alien Species
Mohammad Noor Amal Azmai (Assoc. Prof. Dr.)
Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM)
  • Fishes
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Environment
  • Invasive Alien Species
  • Microorganism
  • PM
  • SEA
Mohd Ilham Norhakim Lokman (Mr.)
  • Fishes
  • Fishes
  • Conservation
Mohd Nasarudin Bin Harith @ Abdul Nasir (Mr.)
Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS)
  • Fishes (Ecology)
  • Biodiversity
  • Ecology
  • Environment
  • Marine & Coastal
  • Science
  • Water
  • SWK
Mohd Shafiq Bin Zakeyuddin (Dr.)
TNB Research Sdn Bhd (TNBR)
  • Fishes
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Management
  • Tourism
  • PM
Seah Ying Giat (Assoc. Prof. Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT)
  • Fishes (Taxonomy)
  • Biodiversity
  • Marine & Coastal
  • Molecular
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
Siti Azizah Mohd Nor (Prof. Dr.)
Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM)
  • Crustaceans
  • Fishes
  • Molluscs
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Ecosystems
  • Marine & Coastal
  • Molecular
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
  • W
Siti Tafzilmeriam Sheikh Abdul Kadir (Mrs.)
Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT)
  • Fishes
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Ecosystems
  • Environment
  • Marine & Coastal
  • Science
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
Syaizwan Zahmir Zulkifli (Dr.)
Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM)
  • Birds (Ecology)
  • Fishes (Ecology)
  • Molluscs (Ecology)
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Ecosystems
  • Marine & Coastal
  • Water
Zarul Hazrin Hashim (Dr.)
Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM)
  • Fishes (Ecology)
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Data Analysis
  • Ecosystems
  • Environment
  • Protected Areas
  • Water
  • Marine & Coastal
  • Climate Change
  • Invasive Alien Species
  • PM
  • SWK
PM - Peninsular Malaysia; SBH - Sabah; SWK - Sarawak; SEA - Southeast Asia; W - World;

References

Article
  1. Allen, D.J., Smith, K.G. & Darwall, W.R.T. (2012). The Status and Distribution of Freshwater Biodiversity in Indo-Burma. , 158 — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  2. Azahar, M.A., Kaviarasu, M. & Shahfiz, M.A. (2021). Diversity of freshwater fish in Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM): A comparison of diversity between manmade and natural forest in Selangor, Malaysia. In IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science 842(1): p. 012027. . https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/842/1/012027
  3. Chong, V.C., Lee, P.K.Y. & Lau, C.M. (2010). Diversity, extinction risk and conservation of Malaysian fishes. Journal of Fish Biology 76 (9), 2009-2066
  4. Fahmi-Ahmad, M., Rizal, S.A. & Ahmad, A. (2015). Ichthyofaunal Diversity of Tasek Bera Ramsar Site, Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia. Journal of Wildlife and Parks 30, 27-43 — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  5. Parenti, L.R. & Lim, K.K.P. (2005). Fishes of the Rajang Basin, Sarawak, Malaysia. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Supplements (13), 175-208. http://repository.si.edu/bitstream/handle/10088/10948/vz_Parenti_Lim__2005.pdf
  6. Shahriza, S., Ibrahim, J., Shahrul Anuar, M.S. & Mohd Abdul Muin, M.A. (2012). Herpetofauna of Peta Area of Endau-Rompin National Park, Johor, Malaysia. Pertanika Journal of Tropical Agricultural Science 35 (3), 553-567
Book
  1. A visitor's guidebook to Endau-Rompin (Johor) National Park, 2019. Johor National Parks Corporation and UNDP Malaysia. pp. 108.
  2. ASEAN Biodiversity Outlook 2, 2017. ASEAN Centre for Biodiversity, Philippines. pp. 220. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  3. Ikan Air Tawar Semenanjung Malaysia / Freshwater Fishes of Peninsular Malaysia, 2019. Jabatan Perikanan Malaysia.
  4. Kementerian Sumber Asli, Alam Sekitar dan Perubahan Iklim. (2023). Biodiversiti di Malaysia, 2023. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  5. Pesona Perikanan Malaysia, 2016. Jabatan Perikanan Malaysia.
  6. Ahmad, A., Fahmi-Ahmad, M., Aqmal-Naser, M., Rizal, S.A., Zakaria, Z.A., Lokman, M.I.N, Rasul, A.H.M., Intan Faraha, A.G., Khaironizam, M.Z. & Amal, M.N.A. (2023). Fishes of Tasek Bera, Pahang. Ministry of Natural Resources, Environment and Climate Change, Malaysia. pp. 154.
  7. Ambak, M.A., Mansor, M.I., Zakaria, M.Z. & Mazlan, A.G. (2010). Fishes of Malaysia. Penerbit UMT, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, Malaysia. pp. 334.
  8. Goh, W. & Chua, J. (1999). The Asian Arowana, Volume 1. Dragon Fish Industry, Singapore. pp. 17-24.
  9. Nee, T. A. & Norhayati, N. (2018). Compendium of Facts and Figures. 3rd Edition, Volume 3. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Malaysia. pp. 174.
  10. Praveena, B.K. & Maria Arlene, J.A.S. (2013). Compendium of Facts and Figures. 2nd Edition. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Malaysia. pp. 161.
  11. Rainboth, W.J (1996). Fishes of the Cambodian Mekong., Issue/No. FAO Species Identification Field Guide for Fishery Purposes. Food and Agriculture Organisation. pp. 265.
Journal
  1. Malayan Nature Journal, Volume 73, Issue 3, p. 419, 2021
  2. Rowley, J.J, Emmett, D.A & Voen, S. Harvest, trade and conservation of the Asian arowana Scleropages formosus in Cambodia, Volume 18, Issue 7, p. 1255-1262, 2008
  3. Scott, D.B.C & Fuller, J.D. The reproductive biology of Scleropages formosus (Müller & Schlegel) (Osteoglossomorpha, Osteoglossidae) in Malaya, and the morphology of its pituitary gland, Volume 8, Issue 1, p. 45-53, 1976
Pamphlet/Brochure
  1. Identification Sheets for Wildlife Species Traded in Southeast Asia, 2008. TRAFFIC Southeast Asia. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]

Acknowledgements :- Mr. Abdul Razak Mohd Nor Rasid, Ms. Aida Salihah Binti Abu Bakar, Mrs. Aziemah Binti Kinan, Mr. Badrul Amin Bin Jaffar, Ms. Mira Farzana Binti Mohamad Mokhtar, Mr. Mohamad Sufiyan Bin Salmi, Ms. Nur Fitriyana Haziqah Binti Fakhrul Anuar, Mrs. Nur Hazwanie Binti Abd Halim, Ms. Nurfadzilah Bt Azmi, Ms. Nursyafiqa Madzlen, Mr. Tan Kok Kiat & Mr. Yasser Mohamed Arifin

Photo credit :- M.I.Norhakim Lokman

Species Citation :- Scleropages formosus. Malaysia Biodiversity Information System (MyBIS). Accessed via https://www.mybis.gov.my/sp/24517. [Retrieved 18 April 2024].

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