Native Plants

Cerbera manghas

Pong Pong
LC
Least Concern
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
2019
NT
Near Threatened
Malaysia Plant Red List
2010
QR Code
SSN 24556
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Taxonomy

  • Kingdom
  • Division
  • Class
  • Order
  • Family
  • Genus
  • Species
    manghas L.
  • Synonym
  • Vernacular Name
  • Residential
    Native
The taxonomic status is pending for approval

Description

Cerbera manghas is known as pongpong tree in English or pokok pong pong in Malay. In Sabah and Sarawak, this tree is known as pong-pong and entiba, respectively (Soepadmo et al., 2004). The species epithet maghas is derived from the Portuguese word for mango (‘manga’), which refers to its mango-like fruit (Kiew et al., 2011).

 

Cerbera manghas is common in Sabah and Sarawak and found throughout Peninsular Malaysia, with the exception of Perlis and Melaka. Cerbera manghas can be found on sandy and rocky sandshores and in sandy coastal heaths where it can grow up to 20 m tall and 60 cm in diameter. However, tourism poses a threat to its habitat (Kiew et al., 2011).

 

This tree is commonly grown as a street tree in Malaysia and its wood is utilised for household items, packaging and as charcoal. Externally, it can be applied on sores while used internally as a purgative. Traditionally, the fruits are believed to relieve rheumatism (diseases affecting joints or connective tissues) while the latex can counteract sting-ray poison (Soepadmo et al., 2004). The seeds of Cerbera manghas can also be made into fish poison and also yield an oil to make candles. Similar to C. odollam, the leaves and fruits of C. manghas contain the fatal toxic chemical, cerberin (Kiew et al., 2011).

Habits

  Part Habit
 
Poisonous   —   Causing or capable of causing death or illness if taken into the body.
 
Shrub   —   A small to medium sized perennial woody plant.

Habitats

No Description Suitability Seasonality
1
Vegetation → Coastal Vegetation
Unknown Unknown
References : http://www.iucnredlist.org/technical-documents/classification-schemes/habitats-classification-scheme-ver3

Assessment

Year Published Assessment Red List Category Version
2021 Malaysia Plant Red List
Near Threatened (NT)
Peninsular Malaysia
N/A
2019 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Least Concern (LC)
N/A
2010 Malaysia Plant Red List
Near Threatened (NT)
N/A

Structure

Flower
Color
 
White
Fruits
Color
 
Red
Roots
Visibility
 
Yes

Biodiversity Experts

Profile
Ahmad Aldrie Amir (Dr.)
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM)
  • Vascular
  • Biodiversity
  • Climate Change
  • Conservation
  • Ecosystems
  • Environment
  • Evolution
  • Forest
  • History
  • Law and Policy
  • Management
  • Marine & Coastal
  • Protected Areas
  • Science
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
  • W
Anisah Lee Abdullah (Assoc. Prof. Dr.)
Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM)
  • Coral Reefs
  • Vascular
  • Biodiversity
  • Climate Change
  • Conservation
  • Ecosystems
  • Environment
  • Geoinformatics
  • Management
  • Marine & Coastal
  • Protected Areas
  • Science
  • Technology
  • Water
  • PM
  • SBH
Asyraf Mansor (Dr.)
Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM)
  • Palms
  • Vascular (Ecology)
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Ecosystems
  • Environment
  • Evolution
  • Forest
  • PM
Chan Yoke Mui (Dr.)
Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM)
  • Palms (Ecology)
  • Vascular (Ecology)
  • Conservation
  • Biodiversity
  • Forest
  • Genetics
  • PM
Chong Ju Lian (Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT)
  • Mammals (Ecology)
  • Vascular (Ecology)
  • Invasive Alien Species
  • Protected Areas
  • Digital Sequence Information (DSI)
  • Marine & Coastal
  • Climate Change
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
  • W
Kartini Binti Saibeh (Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS)
  • Vascular
  • Agriculture
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • SBH
Mohamad Azani Alias (Assoc. Prof. Dr.)
Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM)
  • Vascular (Taxonomy)
  • Vascular
  • Vascular
  • Amphibians
  • Amphibians
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Climate Change
  • Protected Areas
  • Forest
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
Mohd Fahmi Abu Bakar (Ts. Dr.)
Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA)
  • Vascular
  • Digital Sequence Information (DSI)
  • Evolution
  • Genetics
  • Molecular
  • Systematics
  • PM
Mohd Norfaizal Ghazalli (Dr.)
Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI)
  • Vascular
  • Pitcher plants
  • Agriculture
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Ecosystems
  • Science
  • Systematics
  • Taxonomy
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
Nazahatul Anis Amaludin (Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Kelantan (UMK)
  • Vascular (Ecology)
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • PM
Nor Ezzawanis Abdullah Thani (Mrs.)
Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM)
  • Vascular (Taxonomy)
  • Digital Sequence Information (DSI)
  • PM
Nur Kyariatul Syafinie Abdul Majid (Ms.)
Universiti Malaysia Kelantan (UMK)
  • Vascular (Ecology)
  • Biodiversity
  • Climate Change
  • Conservation
  • Forest
  • Protected Areas
  • PM
Nur Supardi Md Noor (Dr.)
Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM)
  • Palms
  • Vascular
  • Biodiversity
  • Climate Change
  • Conservation
  • Ecosystems
  • Environment
  • Forest
  • Management
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
  • W
Rusea Go (Prof. Dr.)
Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM)
  • Orchids (Taxonomy)
  • Vascular (Taxonomy)
  • Vascular (Ecology)
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Environment
  • Forest
  • Management
  • Protected Areas
  • Climate Change
  • Invasive Alien Species
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
Tam Sheh May (Dr.)
Taylor's University
  • Orchids
  • Vascular
  • Biodiversity
  • Data Analysis
  • Evolution
  • Genetics
  • Molecular
  • PM
Tan Swee Lian (Dr.)
Academy of Sciences Malaysia (ASM)
  • Vascular (Ecology)
  • Agriculture
  • Biodiversity
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
Yong Kien Thai (Dr.)
University of Malaya (UM)
  • Moss
  • Vascular (Taxonomy)
  • Ferns (Taxonomy)
  • Protected Areas
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Evolution
  • Taxonomy
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
PM - Peninsular Malaysia; SBH - Sabah; SWK - Sarawak; SEA - Southeast Asia; W - World;

References

Article
  1. Latiff, A., Faridah-Hanum, I., Zainudin Ibrahim, A., Goh, M.W.K., Loo, A.H.B. & Tan, H.T.W. (1999). On the Vegetation and Flora of Pulau Tioman, Peninsular Malaysia. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Supplements (6): pp. 11-72
  2. Senterre, B., Chew, M.Y. & Chung, R.C.K. (2015). Flora and vegetation of Pulau Babi Tengah, Johor, Peninsular Malaysia. Check List: The Journal of Biodiversity Data 11 (4): pp. 1-15
Book
  1. Biodiversity expedition Sungai Bebar, Pekan, Pahang summary findings, Issue/No. , 2005. Peat Swamp Forest Project, UNDP/GEF Funded. pp. 169.
  2. Island Life: A Natural History of Pulau Tengah, Johor, Malaysia, Issue/No. , 2018. WS Lifestyle, Singapore. pp. 163.
  3. Mangrove Guidebook for Malaysia, Issue/No. , 2015. Wetlands International, Malaysia. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  4. Azahar, M., Mohd. Hamami, S., Ahmad Said, S., Faridah, Q.Z., Nor Aini, A.S., Jalil, M.S. & Faridah-Hanum, I. (2006). Sustainable Management and Utilization of Medicinal Plant Resources: Proceedings of the International Conference on Medicinal Plants, 5-7 December 2005 Kuala Lumpur, Issue/No. . Universiti Putra Malaysia dan Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 365.
  5. Faridah-Hanum, I., Khamis, S. & Hamzah, K.A. (2005). A Handbook On The Peat Swamp Flora of Peninsular Malaysia, Issue/No. . Peat Swamp Forest Project, Malaysia. pp. 251.
  6. Kiew, R., Chung, R.C.K., Saw, L.G., Soepadmo, E. & Boyce, P.C. (2011). Flora of Peninsular Malaysia, Series II: Seed Plants, Volume 2, Issue/No. . Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Malaysia. pp. 329.
  7. Paul Chai, P.K. (2006). Medicinal Plants of Sarawak, Issue/No. . pp. 212.
  8. Phang, S.M., Affendi, Y.A., Ooi, J.L.S. & Haji, A.J.M. (2008). Natural History of The Pulau Tioman Group of Islands, Issue/No. . Institute of Ocean and Earth Sciences (IOES), University of Malaya, Malaysia. pp. 292.
  9. Shaharuddin, M.I., Azahar, M., Razani, U., Kamaruzaman, A.B., Lim, K.L., Suhaili, R., Jalil, M.S. & Latiff, A. (2005). Sustainable Management of Matang Mangroves: 100 Years and Beyond, Issue/No. . Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 531.
  10. Soepadmo, E., Saw, L.G. & Chung, R.C.K. (2004). Tree Flora of Sabah and Sarawak, Volume 5, Issue/No. . Sabah Forestry Department, Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Sarawak Forestry Department, Malaysia. pp. 528.
  11. Wan Juliana, W.A, Norhayati, A. & Abdul Latiff, M. (2018). Flora Bakau Malaysia : Malaysia Biodiversity Information System (MyBIS), Issue/No. . Penerbit UKM, Bangi, Malaysia. pp. 101.
  12. Wan Juliana, W.A, Norhayati, A. & Abdul Latiff, M. (2018). Mangrove Flora of Malaysia: Malaysia Biodiversity Information System (MyBIS), Issue/No. . Penerbit Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. pp. 100. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  13. Yong, W.S.Y., Chua, L.S.L., Lau, K.H., Siti-Nur Fatinah, K., Cheah, Y.H., Yao, T.L., Rafidah, A.R., Lim, C.L., Syahida-Emiza, S., Ummul Nazrah, A.R., Nor-Ezzawanis, A.T., Chew, M.Y., Siti Munirah, M.Y., Julius, A., Phoon, S.N., Sam, Y.Y., Nadiah, I., Ong, P.T., Sarah Nabila, R., Suhaida, M., Muhammad-Alif Azyraf, A., Siti Eryani, S., Yap, J.W., Jutta, M., Azeman, S., Salleh, N., Kiew, R. & Chung, R.C.K. (2021). Malaysia Red List: Plants of Peninsular Malaysia, Volume 1, Issue/No. 2. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Malaysia. pp. 753.

Acknowledgements :- Mr. Abdul Razak Mohd Nor Rasid, Ms. Aida Salihah Binti Abu Bakar, Ms. Ainul Aqilah Binti Mohd Nasir, Ms. Ajla Rafidah Baharom, Ms. Amirah Hasanah Binti Mazlan, Mrs. Aziemah Binti Kinan, Mr. Badrul Amin Bin Jaffar, Ms. Nur Diana Bt Mohd Rusdi, Ms. Nur Farahin Binti Mustafa, Ms. Nurfadzilah Bt Azmi, Ms. Nurfarhana Hizan Binti Hijas, Ms. Sara Eisya Binti Mohamed Ghozali, Mr. Tan Kok Kiat, Ms. Vanessa Ting Ching Ching & Mr. Yasser Mohamed Arifin

Photo credit :- Norhayati Binti Ahmad & Tan Sin Hoong

Species Citation :- Cerbera manghas. Malaysia Biodiversity Information System (MyBIS). Accessed via https://www.mybis.gov.my/sp/24556. [Retrieved 30 June 2022].

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Website Citation: MyBIS (2022). Malaysia Biodiversity Information System. Published on the Internet https://www.mybis.gov.my/, Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources, Malaysia Biodiversity Centre & Forest Research Institute Malaysia. [Retrieved 30 June 2022].