Native Plants

Cananga odorata

Kenanga
LC
Least Concern
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
ver 3.1, 2018
NE
Not Evaluated
Malaysia Plant Red List
2010
QR Code
SSN 31784
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Taxonomy

  • Kingdom
  • Division
  • Class
  • Order
  • Family
  • Genus
  • Species
    odorata (Lam.) Hook. f. & Thomson
  • Synonym
  • Vernacular Name
  • Residential
    Native
The taxanomic status is pending for approval

Gallery  

Fruits
Flower
Flower
Leaf
Infructescence
Bark

Description

Cananga odorata, commonly known as Ylang-ylang in English, belongs to the Annonaceae or custard-apple family, and is well-known for its fragrant flowers. In Malay, it is known as Kenanga or Kenanga hutan. Cananga odorata is widely distributed from Australia, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, to the Solomon Islands (IUCN, 2019). In Malaysia, it generally grows wild on forest edges in the northern region of Peninsular Malaysia to Negeri Sembilan (Ong, 2004). This species is frequently found in Sabah but is much rarer in Sarawak.

Generally, C. odorata is a medium-sized evergreen tree that grows up to 30 m in height and has a fast growth rate of more than 2 m per year in its early years. It has long drooping, leafy twigs dangling 3-6 m and the bark is greyish white to silvery and smooth. The leaves are dark shiny green, simple, alternate, and ovate-oblong shaped (Adnan et al., 2018). The flowers are pollinated by nocturnal moths and relatively small beetles from the families Curculionieae, Nitidulidaea, and Chrysomelidae. The distinctive aggregate fruits are greenish-black, olive like, 8−15 individually stalked, and turn from dark green to black when ripened. The seeds are pale brown, flattened, ellipsoid, smooth, and irregularly pitted.

Habitats

No Description Suitability Seasonality
1
Forest → Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland Forest
Suitable Unknown
References : http://www.iucnredlist.org/technical-documents/classification-schemes/habitats-classification-scheme-ver3

Assessment

Year Published Assessment Red List Category Version
2018 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Least Concern (LC)
3.1
2010 Malaysia Plant Red List
Not Evaluated (NE)
N/A

Location

by State Location
  • Pahang 2
  • Selangor 1
  • Terengganu 2
  • Federal Territories of Putrajaya 1
Based on publications, specimens, and images

Biodiversity Experts

Profile
Ahmad Aldrie Amir (Dr.)
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM)
  • Vascular
  • Biodiversity
  • Climate Change
  • Conservation
  • Ecosystems
  • Environment
  • Evolution
  • Forest
  • History
  • Law and Policy
  • Management
  • Marine & Coastal
  • Protected Areas
  • Science
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
  • W
Anisah Lee Abdullah (Assoc. Prof. Dr.)
Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM)
  • Coral Reefs
  • Vascular
  • Biodiversity
  • Climate Change
  • Conservation
  • Ecosystems
  • Environment
  • Geoinformatics
  • Management
  • Marine & Coastal
  • Protected Areas
  • Science
  • Technology
  • Water
  • PM
  • SBH
Asyraf Mansor (Dr.)
Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM)
  • Palms
  • Vascular (Ecology)
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Ecosystems
  • Environment
  • Evolution
  • Forest
  • PM
Chan Yoke Mui (Ms.)
Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM)
  • Palms (Ecology)
  • Vascular (Ecology)
  • Conservation
  • Biodiversity
  • Forest
  • Genetics
  • PM
Chong Ju Lian (Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT)
  • Mammals (Ecology)
  • Vascular (Ecology)
  • Invasive Alien Species
  • Protected Areas
  • Digital Sequence Information (DSI)
  • Marine & Coastal
  • Climate Change
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
  • W
Kartini Binti Saibeh (Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS)
  • Vascular
  • Agriculture
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • SBH
Mohamad Azani Alias (Assoc. Prof. Dr.)
Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM)
  • Vascular (Taxonomy)
  • Vascular
  • Vascular
  • Amphibians
  • Amphibians
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Climate Change
  • Protected Areas
  • Forest
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
Mohd Norfaizal Ghazalli (Dr.)
Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI)
  • Vascular
  • Pitcher plants
  • Agriculture
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Ecosystems
  • Science
  • Systematics
  • Taxonomy
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
Nazahatul Anis Amaludin (Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Kelantan (UMK)
  • Vascular (Ecology)
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • PM
Nor Ezzawanis Abdullah Thani (Mrs.)
Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM)
  • Vascular (Taxonomy)
  • Digital Sequence Information (DSI)
  • PM
Nur Kyariatul Syafinie Abdul Majid (Ms.)
Universiti Malaysia Kelantan (UMK)
  • Vascular (Ecology)
  • Biodiversity
  • Climate Change
  • Conservation
  • Forest
  • Protected Areas
  • PM
Nur Supardi Md Noor (Dr.)
Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM)
  • Palms
  • Vascular
  • Biodiversity
  • Climate Change
  • Conservation
  • Ecosystems
  • Environment
  • Forest
  • Management
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
  • W
Rusea Go (Prof. Dr.)
Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM)
  • Orchids (Taxonomy)
  • Vascular (Taxonomy)
  • Vascular (Ecology)
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Environment
  • Forest
  • Management
  • Protected Areas
  • Climate Change
  • Invasive Alien Species
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
Tam Sheh May (Dr.)
Taylor's University
  • Orchids
  • Vascular
  • Biodiversity
  • Data Analysis
  • Evolution
  • Genetics
  • Molecular
  • PM
Tan Swee Lian (Dr.)
Academy of Sciences Malaysia (ASM)
  • Vascular (Ecology)
  • Agriculture
  • Biodiversity
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
Yong Kien Thai (Dr.)
University of Malaya (UM)
  • Moss
  • Vascular (Taxonomy)
  • Ferns (Taxonomy)
  • Protected Areas
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Evolution
  • Taxonomy
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
PM - Peninsular Malaysia; SBH - Sabah; SWK - Sarawak; SEA - Southeast Asia; W - World;

References

Article
  1. Ang, L.H., Ho, W.M. & Tang, L.K. (2014). A Depository of Lowland Forest Tree Species Established on a Brown-Filled Site in Ara Damansara, Selangor, Malaysia. Journal of Wildlife and Parks 29: pp. 55-60
  2. Ho, W.M., Tang, L.K., Ang, L.H., Kang, H.S. & Lee, D.K. (2014). Enrichment Planting in a Greened Slime Tailings in Peninsular Malaysia. Journal of Wildlife and Parks 29: pp. 73-76
  3. Tan, L.T., Lee, H.L., Yin, W.F., Chan, C.K., Abdul Kadir, H., Chan, K.G. & Goh, B.H. (2015). Traditional uses, phytochemistry, and bioactivities of Cananga odorata (Ylang-Ylang). Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: pp. 30
  4. Manner, H.I. & Elevitch, C.R. (2006). Cananga odorata (ylang-ylang). Species profiles for Pacific Island agroforestry. : pp. 199-208
  5. Ang, L.H., Ho, W.M., Tang, L.K. & Hazarimmah, S.O. (2017). Increasing Tree Diversity Index through Planting of 30 Indigenous Rainforest Tree on a 5 ha Slime Tailings. An Introduction to ABS: Access to biological resources and the sharing of benefits arising from their utilisation: pp. 102-106
  6. Ang, L.H., Ho, W.M., Tang, L.K., Kang, H.S. & Lee, D.K. (2017). Survival and Vegetative Growth of Some Selected Rainforest Tree Species inter-planted under Hopea odorata Stand at Slime Tailings in Peninsular Malaysia. Seminar on Reclamation, Rehabilitation and Restoration of Disturbed Sites: Planting of National and IUCN Red List Species, 15-17 August 2017, Kuala Lumpur (14): pp. 107-113
  7. Abdulrahman, M.D., Ali, A.M., Nur Fatihah, H.N., Khandaker, M.M. & Nashriyah, M. (2018). Traditional medicinal knowledge of Malays in Terengganu, Peninsular Malaysia. Malayan Nature Journal 70 (3): pp. 349-364
  8. Latiff, A., Faridah-Hanum, I., Zainudin Ibrahim, A., Goh, M.W.K., Loo, A.H.B. & Tan, H.T.W. (1999). On the Vegetation and Flora of Pulau Tioman, Peninsular Malaysia. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Supplements (6): pp. 11-72
  9. Turner, I.M. & Veldkamp, J.F. (2009). A history of Cananga (Annonaceae). Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 61 (1): pp. 189-204
Book
  1. FAO and Non-Timber Forest Products-Exchange Programme. 2020. Naturally Beautiful: Cosmetic and Beauty Products from Forests. Bangkok, Thailand. pp. 174.
  2. Adler, P.H. (2002). A Guide to Taman Botani Putrajaya: Tropical Roots. Perbadanan Putrajaya, Malaysia. pp. 13.
  3. Azahar, M., Mohd. Hamami, S., Ahmad Said, S., Faridah, Q.Z., Nor Aini, A.S., Jalil, M.S. & Faridah-Hanum, I. (2006). Sustainable Management and Utilization of Medicinal Plant Resources: Proceedings of the International Conference on Medicinal Plants, 5-7 December 2005 Kuala Lumpur. Universiti Putra Malaysia dan Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 365.
  4. Soepadmo, E., Saw, L.G., Chung, R.C.K. & Kiew, R. (2014). Tree Flora of Sabah and Sarawak, Volume 8. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Malaysia. pp. 248.
  5. Abdul Rahman, A.R., Mohd Nasir, A.H., Azmi, N., Nor Hasliza, M.B. & Latiff, A. (2014). Hutan Simpan Gunung Tebu, Terengganu: Pengurusan Hutan, Persekitaran Fizikal dan Kepelbagaian Biologi. Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 343.
  6. Maimon, A., Norhayati, A. & Latiff, A. (2017). Mekar Putrajaya: Putrajaya Blooms. Perbadanan Putrajaya, Putrajaya, Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 181.
  7. Abdullah, M.T., Nur Amalina, A, Amirah Azizah, Z, Nur Izzah, I.A. & Roslan, A. (2019). Tasik Kenyir: Stunning Beauty And Its Biodiversity. Penerbit UMT.
  8. Ong, H.C. (2004). Tumbuhan Liar: Khasiat & Kegunaan Lain. Utusan Publications & Distribution Sdn. Bhd., Malaysia. pp. 241.
  9. Phang, S.M., Affendi, Y.A., Ooi, J.L.S. & Haji, A.J.M. (2008). Natural History of The Pulau Tioman Group of Islands. Institute of Ocean and Earth Sciences (IOES), University of Malaya, Malaysia. pp. 292.
  10. Boo, C.M., Omar-Hor, K. & Ou-Yang, C.L. (2003). 1001 Garden Plants in Singapore. National Parks Board, Singapore. pp. 501.
  11. Wong, K.M. (2001). Medicinal Plants, Rain Forests and Us. pp. 38.
  12. Adnan, M., Zainuddin, A.F., Hamzah, M.A., Moorthy, M. & Mohamad Zaki, M.I. (2018). Koleksi Pokok Taman Botani Kepong. Institut Penyelidikan Perhutanan Malaysia (FRIM), Malaysia. pp. 1-234.
Chapter in book
  1. Stem and Branch Characteristics. In Van Balgooy, M.M.J., Low, Y.W. & Wong, K.M. (Eds.), Spot-Characters for the Identification of Malesian Seed Plants. Natural History Publications (Borneo) Sdn. Bhd. pp. 34-45.
  2. Parrotta, J.A. (2014). Cananga odorata. In Roloff, A., Weisgerber, H., Lang, U.M., Stimm, B. & Schutt, P. (Eds.), Enzyklopädie der Holzgewächse: Handbuch und Atlas der Dendrologie. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. pp. 1-8.
  3. Turner, I.M., Weerasooriya, A.D., Saunders, R.M.K. & Ganesan, S.K. (2014). Annonaceae. In Soepadmo, E., Saw, L.G., Chung, R.C.K. & Kiew, R. (Eds.), Tree Flora of Sabah and Sarawak, volume 8. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM). pp. 1-200.

Acknowledgements :- Mr. Ahmad Amir Firdaus Bin Mad Apandi, Ms. Aida Salihah Binti Abu Bakar, Ms. Ainul Aqilah Binti Mohd Nasir, Mrs. Aziemah Binti Kinan, Mr. Badrul Amin Bin Jaffar, Mrs. Hazlina Ali, Ms. Mira Farzana Binti Mohamad Mokhtar, Mr. Mohamad Amini Bin Nordin, Mr. Mohamad Nazrin Bin Ahmad Azmi, Mr. Muhammad Izzuddin Bin Hazan, Mr. Muhammad Lutfi Haron, Ms. Noorkhalilie Binti Che Abd Aziz, Ms. Nur Syahirah Binti Abd Hamid, Ms. Nurfadzilah Bt Azmi, Ms. Nurfarhana Hizan Binti Hijas, Mr. Tan Kok Kiat, Ms. Vanessa Ting Ching Ching & Mr. Yasser Mohamed Arifin

Citation :- Cananga odorata. Malaysia Biodiversity Information System (MyBIS). https://www.mybis.gov.my/sp/31784. Downloaded on 30 November 2021.

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