Native Plants

Cananga odorata

Kenanga
LC
Least Concern
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
ver 3.1, 2019
NE
Not Evaluated
Malaysia Plant Red List
2010
QR Code
SSN 31784
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Taxonomy

  • Kingdom
  • Division
  • Class
  • Order
  • Family
  • Genus
  • Specific Epithet
    odorata (Lam.) Hook. f. & Thomson
  • Synonym
  • Vernacular Name
  • Residential
    Native
The taxonomic status is pending for approval

Description

Cananga odorata, commonly known as Ylang-ylang in English, belongs to the Annonaceae or custard-apple family, and is well-known for its fragrant flowers. In Malay, it is known as Kenanga or Kenanga hutan. Cananga odorata is widely distributed from Australia, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, to the Solomon Islands (IUCN, 2019). In Malaysia, it generally grows wild on forest edges in the northern region of Peninsular Malaysia to Negeri Sembilan (Ong, 2004). This species is frequently found in Sabah but is much rarer in Sarawak.

Generally, C. odorata is a medium-sized evergreen tree that grows up to 30 m in height and has a fast growth rate of more than 2 m per year in its early years. It has long drooping, leafy twigs dangling 3-6 m and the bark is greyish white to silvery and smooth. The leaves are dark shiny green, simple, alternate, and ovate-oblong shaped (Adnan et al., 2018). The flowers are pollinated by nocturnal moths and relatively small beetles from the families Curculionieae, Nitidulidaea, and Chrysomelidae. The distinctive aggregate fruits are greenish-black, olive like, 8−15 individually stalked, and turn from dark green to black when ripened. The seeds are pale brown, flattened, ellipsoid, smooth, and irregularly pitted.

Habitats

No Description Suitability Seasonality
1
Forest → Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland Forest
Suitable Unknown
References : http://www.iucnredlist.org/technical-documents/classification-schemes/habitats-classification-scheme-ver3

Assessment

Year Published Assessment Red List Category Version
2019 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Least Concern (LC)
3.1
2010 Malaysia Plant Red List
Not Evaluated (NE)
N/A

Structure

Leaf
2D Shape
 
Elliptic
 
Oblong
 
Ovate

Location

by State Location
  • Pahang 2
  • Selangor 1
  • Terengganu 2
  • Federal Territories of Putrajaya 1
Based on publications, specimens, and images

Biodiversity Experts

Profile
Ahmad Aldrie Amir (Dr.)
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM)
  • Vascular
  • Biodiversity
  • Climate Change
  • Conservation
  • Ecosystems
  • Environment
  • Evolution
  • Forest
  • History
  • Law and Policy
  • Management
  • Marine & Coastal
  • Protected Areas
  • Science
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
  • W
Anisah Lee Abdullah (Assoc. Prof. Dr.)
Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM)
  • Coral Reefs
  • Vascular
  • Biodiversity
  • Climate Change
  • Conservation
  • Ecosystems
  • Environment
  • Geoinformatics
  • Management
  • Marine & Coastal
  • Protected Areas
  • Science
  • Technology
  • Water
  • PM
  • SBH
Asyraf Mansor (Assoc. Prof. Dr.)
Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM)
  • Palms
  • Vascular (Ecology)
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Ecosystems
  • Environment
  • Evolution
  • Forest
  • PM
Chong Ju Lian (Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT)
  • Mammals (Ecology)
  • Vascular (Ecology)
  • Invasive Alien Species
  • Protected Areas
  • Digital Sequence Information (DSI)
  • Marine & Coastal
  • Climate Change
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
  • W
Kartini Binti Saibeh (Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS)
  • Vascular
  • Agriculture
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • SBH
Mohamad Azani Alias (Assoc. Prof. Dr.)
Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM)
  • Vascular (Taxonomy)
  • Vascular
  • Vascular
  • Amphibians
  • Amphibians
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Climate Change
  • Protected Areas
  • Forest
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
Mohd Fahmi Abu Bakar (Ts. Dr.)
Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA)
  • Vascular
  • Digital Sequence Information (DSI)
  • Evolution
  • Genetics
  • Molecular
  • Systematics
  • PM
Mohd Norfaizal Ghazalli (Dr.)
Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI)
  • Vascular
  • Pitcher plants
  • Agriculture
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Ecosystems
  • Science
  • Systematics
  • Taxonomy
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
Nazahatul Anis Amaludin (Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Kelantan (UMK)
  • Vascular (Ecology)
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • PM
Nor Ezzawanis Abdullah Thani (Mrs.)
Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM)
  • Vascular (Taxonomy)
  • Digital Sequence Information (DSI)
  • PM
Nur Kyariatul Syafinie Abdul Majid (Ms.)
Universiti Malaysia Kelantan (UMK)
  • Vascular (Ecology)
  • Biodiversity
  • Climate Change
  • Conservation
  • Forest
  • Protected Areas
  • PM
Nur Supardi Md Noor (Dr.)
Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM)
  • Palms
  • Vascular
  • Biodiversity
  • Climate Change
  • Conservation
  • Ecosystems
  • Environment
  • Forest
  • Management
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
  • W
Rusea Go (Prof. Dr.)
Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM)
  • Orchids (Taxonomy)
  • Vascular (Taxonomy)
  • Vascular (Ecology)
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Environment
  • Forest
  • Management
  • Protected Areas
  • Climate Change
  • Invasive Alien Species
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
Tam Sheh May (Dr.)
Taylor's University
  • Orchids
  • Vascular
  • Biodiversity
  • Data Analysis
  • Evolution
  • Genetics
  • Molecular
  • PM
Tan Swee Lian (Dr.)
Academy of Sciences Malaysia (ASM)
  • Vascular (Ecology)
  • Agriculture
  • Biodiversity
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
Yong Kien Thai (Dr.)
University of Malaya (UM)
  • Moss
  • Vascular (Taxonomy)
  • Ferns (Taxonomy)
  • Protected Areas
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Evolution
  • Taxonomy
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
PM - Peninsular Malaysia; SBH - Sabah; SWK - Sarawak; SEA - Southeast Asia; W - World;

References

Article
  1. Abdulrahman, M.D., Ali, A.M., Nur Fatihah, H.N., Khandaker, M.M. & Nashriyah, M. (2018). Traditional medicinal knowledge of Malays in Terengganu, Peninsular Malaysia. Malayan Nature Journal 70 (3), 349-364
  2. Ang, L.H., Ho, W.M. & Tang, L.K. (2014). A Depository of Lowland Forest Tree Species Established on a Brown-Filled Site in Ara Damansara, Selangor, Malaysia. Journal of Wildlife and Parks 29, 55-60
  3. Ang, L.H., Ho, W.M., Tang, L.K. & Hazarimmah, S.O. (2017). Increasing Tree Diversity Index through Planting of 30 Indigenous Rainforest Tree on a 5 ha Slime Tailings. An Introduction to ABS: Access to biological resources and the sharing of benefits arising from their utilisation, 102-106
  4. Ang, L.H., Ho, W.M., Tang, L.K., Kang, H.S. & Lee, D.K. (2017). Survival and Vegetative Growth of Some Selected Rainforest Tree Species inter-planted under Hopea odorata Stand at Slime Tailings in Peninsular Malaysia. Seminar on Reclamation, Rehabilitation and Restoration of Disturbed Sites: Planting of National and IUCN Red List Species, 15-17 August 2017, Kuala Lumpur (14), 107-113
  5. Ho, W.M., Tang, L.K., Ang, L.H., Kang, H.S. & Lee, D.K. (2014). Enrichment Planting in a Greened Slime Tailings in Peninsular Malaysia. Journal of Wildlife and Parks 29, 73-76
  6. Latiff, A., Faridah-Hanum, I., Zainudin Ibrahim, A., Goh, M.W.K., Loo, A.H.B. & Tan, H.T.W. (1999). On the Vegetation and Flora of Pulau Tioman, Peninsular Malaysia. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Supplements (6), 11-72
  7. Manner, H.I. & Elevitch, C.R. (2006). Cananga odorata (ylang-ylang). Species profiles for Pacific Island agroforestry. , 199-208. https://www.doc-developpement-durable.org/file/Arbres-Bois-de-Rapport-Reforestation/FICHES_ARBRES/Arbres-non-classes/Cananga-ylang-ylang.pdf
  8. Tan, L.T., Lee, H.L., Yin, W.F., Chan, C.K., Abdul Kadir, H., Chan, K.G. & Goh, B.H. (2015). Traditional uses, phytochemistry, and bioactivities of Cananga odorata (Ylang-Ylang). Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 30. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/896314
  9. Turner, I.M. & Veldkamp, J.F. (2009). A history of Cananga (Annonaceae). Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 61 (1), 189-204. http:///www.nparks.gov.sg/sbg/research/publications/gardens-bulletin-singapore/-/media/sbg/gardens-bulletin/gbs_61_01_y2009/61_01_17_y2009_v61p1_gbs_pg189.pdf
  10. Turner, I.M., Boo, C.M., Chen, L.M.J., Choo, J.P.S., Latiff, A. & Ismail, A Zainudin (1998). The botany of the islands of Mersing District, Johore. Peninsular Malaysia. 2. The floras of Pulau Aur and Pulau Pemanggil, with notes on the smaller islands. Gardens' Bulletin Singapore. 50, 59-81
Book
  1. Discovering the Wonders of Malaysian Herbal Monograph Plants, 2020. Institute for Medical Research (IMR).
  2. FAO and Non-Timber Forest Products-Exchange Programme. 2020. Naturally Beautiful: Cosmetic and Beauty Products from Forests. Bangkok, Thailand. pp. 174.
  3. Health and Beauty from the Rainforest : Malaysian Traditions of Ramuan, 2009. Editions Didier Millet. pp. 256.
  4. Abdul Rahman, A.R., Mohd Nasir, A.H., Azmi, N., Nor Hasliza, M.B. & Latiff, A. (2014). Hutan Simpan Gunung Tebu, Terengganu: Pengurusan Hutan, Persekitaran Fizikal dan Kepelbagaian Biologi. Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 343.
  5. Abdullah, M.T., Nur Amalina, A, Amirah Azizah, Z, Nur Izzah, I.A. & Roslan, A. (2019). Tasik Kenyir: Stunning Beauty And Its Biodiversity. Penerbit UMT.
  6. Adler, P.H. (2002). A Guide to Taman Botani Putrajaya: Tropical Roots. Perbadanan Putrajaya, Malaysia. pp. 13.
  7. Adnan, M., Zainuddin, A.F., Hamzah, M.A., Moorthy, M. & Mohamad Zaki, M.I. (2018). Koleksi Pokok Taman Botani Kepong. Institut Penyelidikan Perhutanan Malaysia (FRIM), Malaysia. pp. 1-234.
  8. Azahar, M., Mohd. Hamami, S., Ahmad Said, S., Faridah, Q.Z., Nor Aini, A.S., Jalil, M.S. & Faridah-Hanum, I. (2006). Sustainable Management and Utilization of Medicinal Plant Resources: Proceedings of the International Conference on Medicinal Plants, 5-7 December 2005 Kuala Lumpur. Universiti Putra Malaysia dan Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 365.
  9. Boo, C.M., Omar-Hor, K. & Ou-Yang, C.L. (2003). 1001 Garden Plants in Singapore. National Parks Board, Singapore. pp. 501.
  10. Chew, M.Y., Salleh, N., Azeman, S., Yap, J.W., Sam, Y.Y. & Chung, R.C.K. (2021). Wayside Trees: The Natural Pillars and Roofs of the Perdana Botanical Garden. Kuala Lumpur City Hall and Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 182.
  11. Maimon, A., Norhayati, A. & Latiff, A. (2017). Mekar Putrajaya: Putrajaya Blooms. Perbadanan Putrajaya, Putrajaya, Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 181.
  12. Ong, H.C. (2004). Tumbuhan Liar: Khasiat & Kegunaan Lain. Utusan Publications & Distribution Sdn. Bhd., Malaysia. pp. 241.
  13. Phang, S.M., Affendi, Y.A., Ooi, J.L.S. & Haji, A.J.M. (2008). Natural History of The Pulau Tioman Group of Islands. Institute of Ocean and Earth Sciences (IOES), University of Malaya, Malaysia. pp. 292.
  14. Soepadmo, E., Saw, L.G., Chung, R.C.K. & Kiew, R. (2014). Tree Flora of Sabah and Sarawak, Volume 8. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Malaysia. pp. 248.
  15. Wong, K.M. (2001). Medicinal Plants, Rain Forests and Us. pp. 38.
  16. Zawiah, N., Dasrul, I. & Rosdi, K (2022). Bunga-Bungaan Yang Boleh Dimakan. Institut Penyelidikan Perhutanan Malaysia (FRIM), Malaysia. pp. 2-150.
Chapter in book
  1. Stem and Branch Characteristics. In Van Balgooy, M.M.J., Low, Y.W. & Wong, K.M. (Eds.), Spot-Characters for the Identification of Malesian Seed Plants. Natural History Publications (Borneo) Sdn. Bhd. pp. 34-45.
  2. Parrotta, J.A. (2014). Cananga odorata. In Roloff, A., Weisgerber, H., Lang, U.M., Stimm, B. & Schutt, P. (Eds.), Enzyklopädie der Holzgewächse: Handbuch und Atlas der Dendrologie. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. pp. 1-8.
  3. Turner, I.M., Weerasooriya, A.D., Saunders, R.M.K. & Ganesan, S.K. (2014). Annonaceae. In Soepadmo, E., Saw, L.G., Chung, R.C.K. & Kiew, R. (Eds.), Tree Flora of Sabah and Sarawak, Volume 8. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM). pp. 1-200.

Acknowledgements :- Mr. Ahmad Amir Firdaus Bin Mad Apandi, Ms. Aida Salihah Binti Abu Bakar, Ms. Ainul Aqilah Binti Mohd Nasir, Mrs. Aziemah Binti Kinan, Mr. Badrul Amin Bin Jaffar, Mrs. Hazlina Ali, Ms. Maryam Binti Zulkarnain, Ms. Mira Farzana Binti Mohamad Mokhtar, Mr. Mohamad Amini Bin Nordin, Mr. Mohamad Nazrin Bin Ahmad Azmi, Mr. Muhammad Izzuddin Bin Hazan, Mr. Muhammad Lutfi Haron, Ms. Noorkhalilie Binti Che Abd Aziz, Ms. Nur Ain Salsabiela Binti Hussain, Ms. Nur Diana Aisyah Binti Khairul Anuar, Ms. Nur Syahirah Binti Abd Hamid, Ms. Nurfadzilah Bt Azmi, Mrs. Nurfarhana Hizan Binti Hijas, Mr. Tan Kok Kiat, Ms. Vanessa Ting Ching Ching & Mr. Yasser Mohamed Arifin

Photo credit :- Aida Salihah Binti Abu Bakar, Aziemah Binti Kinan, N H A Halim & Yasser Arifin

Species Citation :- Cananga odorata. Malaysia Biodiversity Information System (MyBIS). Accessed via https://www.mybis.gov.my/sp/31784. [Retrieved 17 April 2024].

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Website Citation: MyBIS (2024). Malaysia Biodiversity Information System. Published on the Internet https://www.mybis.gov.my/, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental Sustainability, Malaysia Biodiversity Centre & Forest Research Institute Malaysia. [Retrieved 17 April 2024].