Native Plants
 

Ctenolophon parvifolius

Mertas
VU
Vulnerable
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
ver 3.1, 2019
LC
Least Concern
Malaysia Plant Red List
Peninsular Malaysia 2021
LC
Least Concern
Peninsular Malaysia Plant Red List *
2010
* Assessed according to the IUCN Red List Categories & Criteria Version 3.1
QR Code
SSN 34323
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Taxonomy

The taxonomic status is pending for approval

Description

Ctenolophonaceae is a monogeric family, with only one genus, Ctenolophon. Ctenolophon is the made up of two Greek words, ctenos and lophorus, which both imply means crested arillode. There are two species belong to this genus but only one species can be found in Peninsular Malaysia, which is Ctenolophon parvifolius. The species name, parvifolius is the combination of two Latin words, parvus and folium, meaning small leaves.

Ctenolophon parvifolius is known as Mertas in Malay. The tree ranges in size from small to big, with steep and spreading buttresses. The bark is easily recognized by its reddish brown colour, with a cracked and scaly surfaces and lenticellate look. The innerbark is a fibrous reddish-brown to pink with clear brownish exudates. The sepal of the flower is dark yellow to green with grey stellate hairs, and the petals are cream tinge pink. The fruits are ellipsoid capsule which turn pink or green with a pink tip when matured.

This species can be found throughout Peninsular Malaysia except in Perlis. It grows in primary lowland mixed dipterocarp forest on ridges and hill slopes, at an elevation between 850 to 1,650 meter, and in seasonal swamp.

Habitats

No Description Suitability Seasonality
1
Forest → Hill Dipterocarp Forest
Unknown Unknown
2
Forest → Lowland Dipterocarp Forest (Malayan, Burmese)
Unknown Unknown
3
Forest → Lowland Mixed Dipterocarp Forest
Unknown Unknown
4
Forest → Subtropical/Tropical Swamp Forest
Suitable Unknown
5
Forest → Upper Hill Dipterocarp Forest
Approximately 762-1219 m (2500-400 ft) above sea level in inland ranges; 609-914 m (2000-3000 ft) in isolated mountains and coastal ranges
Unknown Unknown
References : http://www.iucnredlist.org/technical-documents/classification-schemes/habitats-classification-scheme-ver3

Assessment

Year Published Assessment Red List Category Version
2021 Malaysia Plant Red List
Least Concern (LC)
Peninsular Malaysia
N/A
2019 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Vulnerable (VU)
3.1
2010 Peninsular Malaysia Plant Red List
Least Concern (LC)
N/A

Specimen

Collection Center   Total
10

Biodiversity Experts

Profile
Ahmad Aldrie Amir (Dr.)
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM)
  • Vascular
  • Biodiversity
  • Climate Change
  • Conservation
  • Ecosystems
  • Environment
  • Evolution
  • Forest
  • History
  • Law and Policy
  • Management
  • Marine & Coastal
  • Protected Areas
  • Science
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
  • W
Anisah Lee Abdullah (Assoc. Prof. Dr.)
Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM)
  • Coral Reefs
  • Vascular
  • Biodiversity
  • Climate Change
  • Conservation
  • Ecosystems
  • Environment
  • Geoinformatics
  • Management
  • Marine & Coastal
  • Protected Areas
  • Science
  • Technology
  • Water
  • PM
  • SBH
Asyraf Mansor (Dr.)
Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM)
  • Palms
  • Vascular (Ecology)
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Ecosystems
  • Environment
  • Evolution
  • Forest
  • PM
Chan Yoke Mui (Dr.)
Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM)
  • Palms (Ecology)
  • Vascular (Ecology)
  • Conservation
  • Biodiversity
  • Forest
  • Genetics
  • PM
Chong Ju Lian (Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT)
  • Mammals (Ecology)
  • Vascular (Ecology)
  • Invasive Alien Species
  • Protected Areas
  • Digital Sequence Information (DSI)
  • Marine & Coastal
  • Climate Change
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
  • W
Kartini Binti Saibeh (Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS)
  • Vascular
  • Agriculture
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • SBH
Mohamad Azani Alias (Assoc. Prof. Dr.)
Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM)
  • Vascular (Taxonomy)
  • Vascular
  • Vascular
  • Amphibians
  • Amphibians
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Climate Change
  • Protected Areas
  • Forest
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
Mohd Fahmi Abu Bakar (Ts. Dr.)
Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA)
  • Vascular
  • Digital Sequence Information (DSI)
  • Evolution
  • Genetics
  • Molecular
  • Systematics
  • PM
Mohd Norfaizal Ghazalli (Dr.)
Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI)
  • Vascular
  • Pitcher plants
  • Agriculture
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Ecosystems
  • Science
  • Systematics
  • Taxonomy
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
Nazahatul Anis Amaludin (Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Kelantan (UMK)
  • Vascular (Ecology)
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • PM
Nor Ezzawanis Abdullah Thani (Mrs.)
Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM)
  • Vascular (Taxonomy)
  • Digital Sequence Information (DSI)
  • PM
Nur Kyariatul Syafinie Abdul Majid (Ms.)
Universiti Malaysia Kelantan (UMK)
  • Vascular (Ecology)
  • Biodiversity
  • Climate Change
  • Conservation
  • Forest
  • Protected Areas
  • PM
Nur Supardi Md Noor (Dr.)
Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM)
  • Palms
  • Vascular
  • Biodiversity
  • Climate Change
  • Conservation
  • Ecosystems
  • Environment
  • Forest
  • Management
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
  • W
Rusea Go (Prof. Dr.)
Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM)
  • Orchids (Taxonomy)
  • Vascular (Taxonomy)
  • Vascular (Ecology)
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Environment
  • Forest
  • Management
  • Protected Areas
  • Climate Change
  • Invasive Alien Species
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
Tam Sheh May (Dr.)
Taylor's University
  • Orchids
  • Vascular
  • Biodiversity
  • Data Analysis
  • Evolution
  • Genetics
  • Molecular
  • PM
Tan Swee Lian (Dr.)
Academy of Sciences Malaysia (ASM)
  • Vascular (Ecology)
  • Agriculture
  • Biodiversity
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
Yong Kien Thai (Dr.)
University of Malaya (UM)
  • Moss
  • Vascular (Taxonomy)
  • Ferns (Taxonomy)
  • Protected Areas
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Evolution
  • Taxonomy
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
PM - Peninsular Malaysia; SBH - Sabah; SWK - Sarawak; SEA - Southeast Asia; W - World;

References

Article
  1. Chua, L.S.L., Chung, R.C.K., Sam, Y.Y., Chan, Y.C., Kamarudin, S., Moorthy, M., Nor-Ezzawanis, A.T., Hamidah, M. & Lau, K.H. (2006). A Checklist of Seed Plants at Gunung Aais Forest Reserve, Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia. Malayan Nature Journal 59 (2), 121-152
  2. Latiff, A. & Norhayati, A. (2010). Pemuliharaan dan Kepelbagaian Biologi untuk Pembangunan Ekopelancongan di Langkawi Geopark. Akademika 80 (1), 31-38
  3. Wong, K.M., Low, Y.W., Aziz, A.O., Lepun, P., Zahid, M.S., Manickam, S., Zulkapli, I. & Chew, K.L. (2005). Where the Rhino Roams : A Survey of the Vegetation of the Selai Area in the Endau-Rompin National Park, Johor, Malaysia. The Forests and Biodiversity of Selai Endau-Rompin. pp. 17-26. http://agris.upm.edu.my:8080/dspace/handle/0/6980
Book
  1. Biodiversity expedition Sungai Bebar, Pekan, Pahang summary findings, 2005. Peat Swamp Forest Project, UNDP/GEF Funded. pp. 169.
  2. Abdul Rahman, A.R., Mohd Nasir, A.H., Mohamed Zin, Y., Richard, A.M. & Latiff, A. (2013). Banjaran Bintang Gunung Inas, Kedah: Pengurusan Hutan, Persekitaran Fizikal dan Kepelbagaian Biologi. Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 245.
  3. Abdul Rahman, A.R., Mohd Nasir, A.H., Ahmad Fadzil, A.M., Richard, A.M. & Latiff, A. (2014). Hutan Gunung Besar Hantu, Negeri Sembilan: Pengurusan Hutan, Persekitaran Fizikal dan Kepelbagaian Biologi. Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 254.
  4. Abdul Rahman, A.R., Mohd Nasir, A.H., Azmi, N., Nor Hasliza, M.B. & Latiff, A. (2014). Hutan Simpan Gunung Tebu, Terengganu: Pengurusan Hutan, Persekitaran Fizikal dan Kepelbagaian Biologi. Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 343.
  5. Abdullah, M.T., Nur Amalina, A, Amirah Azizah, Z, Nur Izzah, I.A. & Roslan, A. (2019). Tasik Kenyir: Stunning Beauty And Its Biodiversity. Penerbit UMT.
  6. Azahar, M., Mohd. Hamami, S., Ahmad Said, S., Faridah, Q.Z., Nor Aini, A.S., Jalil, M.S. & Faridah-Hanum, I. (2006). Sustainable Management and Utilization of Medicinal Plant Resources: Proceedings of the International Conference on Medicinal Plants, 5-7 December 2005 Kuala Lumpur. Universiti Putra Malaysia dan Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 365.
  7. Faridah-Hanum, I., Khamis, S. & Hamzah, K.A. (2005). A Handbook On The Peat Swamp Flora of Peninsular Malaysia. Peat Swamp Forest Project, Malaysia. pp. 251.
  8. Kiew, R., Chung, R.C.K., Saw, L.G., Soepadmo, E. & Boyce, P.C. (2010). Flora of Peninsular Malaysia, Series II: Seed Plants, Volume 1. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Malaysia. pp. 329.
  9. Shaharuddin, M.I., Sahidin, A.R., Nor, S.M., Jalil, M.S., Razani, U., Nik Mohd. Shah, N.M. & Latiff, A. (2005). Gunung Nuang, Selangor: Persekitaran Fizikal dan Kepelbagaian Biologi. Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 221.
  10. Shaharuddin, M.I., Mokhtar, M.I., Wan Yusof, W.A., M. Rahim, R. & Latiff, A. (2004). Taman Negeri Endau Rompin : Pengurusan, Persekitaran Fizikal dan Biologi. Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 378.
  11. Soepadmo, E., Wong, K.M. & Saw, L.G. (1996). Tree Flora of Sabah and Sarawak, Volume 2. Sabah Forestry Department, Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Sarawak Forestry Department, Malaysia. pp. 443.
  12. Yong, W.S.Y., Chua, L.S.L., Lau, K.H., Siti-Nur Fatinah, K., Cheah, Y.H., Yao, T.L., Rafidah, A.R., Lim, C.L., Syahida-Emiza, S., Ummul Nazrah, A.R., Nor-Ezzawanis, A.T., Chew, M.Y., Siti Munirah, M.Y., Julius, A., Phoon, S.N., Sam, Y.Y., Nadiah, I., Ong, P.T., Sarah Nabila, R., Suhaida, M., Muhammad-Alif Azyraf, A., Siti Eryani, S., Yap, J.W., Jutta, M., Azeman, S., Salleh, N., Kiew, R. & Chung, R.C.K. (2021). Malaysia Red List: Plants of Peninsular Malaysia, Volume 1, Issue/No. 2. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Malaysia. pp. 753.
Journal
  1. Malayan Nature Journal, Volume 73, Issue 3, p. 419, 2021
Magazine/Bulletin
  1. Timber Notes - Medium Hardwoods (IV) (Merbatu, Merpauh, Mertas, Nyalin, Pauh Kijang). Timber Technology Bulletin: Compilation of Timber Technology Bulletins 1995-2015 (57), 2016. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Malaysia.
  2. Malaysian Timbers for Marine Scaffold Board Application. Timber Technology Bulletin: Compilation of Timber Technology Bulletins 1995-2015 (57), 2016. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Malaysia.

Acknowledgements :- Mr. Abdul Razak Mohd Nor Rasid, Ms. Aida Salihah Binti Abu Bakar, Ms. Anissa Huda Binti Rosli, Mrs. Aziemah Binti Kinan, Mrs. Hakimah Binti Jaafar, Ms. Heng Pooi San, Ms. Mira Farzana Binti Mohamad Mokhtar, Ms. Nur Farahin Binti Mustafa, Mrs. Nur Hazwanie Binti Abd Halim, Ms. Nurfadzilah Bt Azmi, Ms. Nurfarhana Hizan Binti Hijas, Mrs. Sarah Nabila Binti Rosli, Ms. Siti Nor Hidayati Kamaruddin, Mr. Tan Kok Kiat & Mr. Yasser Mohamed Arifin

Species Citation :- Ctenolophon parvifolius. Malaysia Biodiversity Information System (MyBIS). Accessed via https://www.mybis.gov.my/sp/34323. [Retrieved 14 August 2022].

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Website Citation: MyBIS (2022). Malaysia Biodiversity Information System. Published on the Internet https://www.mybis.gov.my/, Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources, Malaysia Biodiversity Centre & Forest Research Institute Malaysia. [Retrieved 14 August 2022].