Native Animals

Trimeresurus nebularis

Cameron Highlands Pit Viper
VU
Vulnerable
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Peninsular Malaysia ver 3.1, 2022
QR Code
SSN 58162
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Taxonomy

The taxonomic status is pending for approval

Description

Trimeresurus nebularis, or the Cameron Highlands Pit Viper is a species under the family Viperidae, subfamily Crotalinae (pit vipers). The Cameron Highlands Pit Viper was first described in 2004 and is found in the mountain ranges south of Pahang, at elevation of around 1500 m. This species was subsequently discovered at Fraser’s Hill, 100 km away to the south of the Cameron Highlands. The southernmost encounter of this species was at Genting Highlands (an unreported bite incident). It has been found at elevation ranging from 1000 to 1500 m and is mainly distributed along the central part of the Titiwangsa mountain range, and has been more recently found in southern Thailand (Das, 2012).

Trimeresurus nebularis males can attain about 100 cm, while females reach at least 95 cm. It has a robust and cylindrical body, the head and the neck can easily be distinguished; it’s pupil is vertical within a yellowish green or green iris. The body dorsum is bright green, with a hint of blue. The upper labials scales are usually bluish-green, while the throat and chin are yellowish green. Ventrolateral stripe and postocular streak are typically absent. The tail is green laterally and its vertebral region rusty brown, with a sharp line in between (Sumontha et al., 2011). Birds and small mammals are likely to be part of its diet (Wong, 2018).

Trimeresurus nebularis is venomous and its bite can potentially cause coagulopathy (bleeding disorder) in humans. It is listed as Vulnerable (VU) under the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, due to its limited distribution, reaching a maximum of roughly 6,600 km² area in central highlands of Peninsular Malaysia (Grismer, 2012). 

Habits

  Part Habit
 
Venomous   —   Capable of injecting venom by means of a bite or sting.

Habitats

No Description Suitability Seasonality
1
Forest → Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane Forest
Suitable Unknown
References : http://www.iucnredlist.org/technical-documents/classification-schemes/habitats-classification-scheme-ver3

Assessment

Year Published Assessment Red List Category Version
2022 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Vulnerable (VU)
Peninsular Malaysia
3.1
2012 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Vulnerable (VU)
3.1

Biodiversity Experts

Profile
Amirrudin Bin Ahmad (Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT)
  • Amphibians
  • Dragonflies and Damselflies
  • Fishes
  • Reptiles
  • Biodiversity
  • Data Analysis
  • Digital Sequence Information (DSI)
  • Living Modified Organism (LMO)
  • Marine & Coastal
  • Protected Areas
  • Invasive Alien Species
  • PM
Chen Pelf Nyok (Dr.)
Turtle Conservation Society of Malaysia (TCS)
  • Turtle, Tortoise, and Terrapin (Ecology)
  • Reptiles (Ecology)
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Education
  • Environment
  • PM
Kaviarasu Munian (Mr.)
Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM)
  • Reptiles (Ecology)
  • Amphibians (Ecology)
  • Fishes (Ecology)
  • PM
Lim Boo Liat (Dr.)
  • Reptiles (Ecology)
  • Rodents (Ecology)
  • Amphibians (Ecology)
  • Biodiversity
  • Ecosystems
  • Invasive Alien Species
Mohammad Shahfiz Azman (Mr.)
Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM)
  • Amphibians
  • Mammals
  • Birds
  • Amphibians
  • Reptiles
  • Awareness
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Ecosystems
  • Environment
  • Forest
  • Landscape
  • Law and Policy
  • Management
  • Protected Areas
  • Science
  • Systematics
  • Invasive Alien Species
  • Like-Minded Megadiverse Countries (LMMC)
  • National Policy on Biological Diversity
  • Policy
  • Research and Development (R&D)
  • Zoonotic
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
Mohd Abdul Muin Bin Md Akil (Mr.)
Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM)
  • Amphibians
  • Birds
  • Reptiles
  • Snakes
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Evolution
  • Genetics
  • Molecular
  • Protected Areas
  • Climate Change
  • Invasive Alien Species
Teo Eng Wah (Dr.)
University of Malaya (UM)
  • Reptiles
  • Amphibians
  • Invasive Alien Species
PM - Peninsular Malaysia; SBH - Sabah; SWK - Sarawak; SEA - Southeast Asia; W - World;

References

Article
  1. Chan, K.O., Mohd Abdul Muin, M.A., Shahrul Anuar, M.S., Andam, J., Razak, N. & Aziz, M.A. (2019). First checklist on the amphibians and reptiles of Mount Korbu, the second highest peak in Peninsular Malaysia. Checklist 15 (6), 1055-1069. https://doi.org/10.15560/15.6.1055 — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  2. Lee Grismer, L., Wood Jr., P.L., Quah, E.S.H., Shahrul Anuar, M.S., Mohd Abdul Muin, M.A., Sumontha, M., Norhayati, A., Bauer, A.M., Wangkulangkul, S., Pauwels, O.S.G & Grismer, J.L. (2012). A Phylogeny and Taxonomy of The Thai-Malay Peninsula Bent-Toed Geckos of The Cyrtodactylus pulchellus Complex (Squamata: Gekkonidae): Combined Morphological and Molecular Analyses with Descriptions of Seven New Species. Zootaxa 3520, 1-55
  3. Marshall, B.M., Strine, C & Hughes, A.C. (2020). Thousands of reptile species threatened by under-regulated global trade. Nature Communications (11). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-18523-4 — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  4. Tan, C.H., Tan, K.Y., Ng, T.S., Quah, E.S.H., Ismail, A.K., Khomvilai, S., Sitprija, V. & Tan, N.H. (2019). Venomics of Trimeresurus (Popeia) nebularis, the Cameron Highlands Pit Viper from Malaysia: Insights into Venom Proteome, Toxicity and Neutralization of Antivenom. Toxins, 11(2): 95. . https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11020095
  5. Vogel, G., David, P. & Pauwels, O.S.G (2004). A review of morphological variation in Trimeresurus popeiorum (Serpentes: Viperidae: Crotalinae), with the description of two new species. Zootaxa 727, 1-63. https://biotaxa.org/Zootaxa/article/view/zootaxa.727.1.1
Book
  1. Guideline: Management of Snakebite, 2017. Ministry of Health Malaysia, Putrajaya, Malaysia. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  2. Panduan Pengendalian Reptilia Berbisa (Ular). Jabatan Bomba dan Penyelamat Malaysia. pp. 75.
  3. Charlton, T. (2020). A Guide to Snakes of Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore. Natural History Publication (Borneo) Sdn Bhd, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah. pp. 264-266; 300 pg.
  4. Das, I. (2010). A Field Guide to the Reptiles of South-East Asia. New Holland Publishers (UK), England. pp. 369.
  5. Das, I. (2012). A Naturalist's Guide to the Snakes of South-east Asia : Including Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Myanmar, Borneo, Sumatra, Java and Bali. John Beaufoy Publishing, Oxford, England. pp. 70-71; 160 pg.
  6. Ismail, A.K., Teo, E.W., Das, I., Vasaruchapong, T. & Weinstein, S.A. (2017). Land Snakes of Medical Significance in Malaysia. Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Putrajaya, Malaysia. pp. 80. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ] — [ | eBook (EPUB) ]
  7. Ismail, A.K., Teo, E.W., Das, I., Vasaruchapong, T. & Weinstein, S.A. (2022). Land Snakes of Medical Significance in Malaysia. 3rd Edition. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Malaysia. pp. 87. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  8. Norhayati, A., Daicus, B. & Chan, K.O. (2021). Ular Darat Malaysia / Land Snakes of Malaysia. Penerbit UKM, Malaysia. pp. 100.
Chapter in book
  1. Das, I. & Norsham, S.Y. (2007). Status of Knowledge of The Malaysia Herpetofauna. In Chua, L.S.L., Kirton, L.G. & Saw, L.G. (Eds.), Status of Biological Diversity in Malaysia and Threat Assessment of Plant Species in Malaysia: Proceedings of the Seminar and Workshop, 28-30 June 2005. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM). pp. 31-81.
  2. Das, I., Norhayati, A. & Lim, B.L. (2015). Venomous Terrestrial Snakes of Malaysia: Their Identity and Biology. In Gopalakrishnakone, P., Faiz, M.A., Fernando, R., Gnanathasan, C.A., Habib, A.G. & Yang, C.-C. (Eds.), Clinical Toxinology in Asia Pacific and Africa. Springer. pp. 53-69. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  3. Ismail, A.K. (2015). Snakebite and Envenomation Management in Malaysia. In Gopalakrishnakone, P., Faiz, M.A., Fernando, R., Gnanathasan, C.A., Habib, A.G. & Yang, C.-C. (Eds.), Clinical Toxinology in Asia Pacific and Africa. Springer. pp. 71-102.

Acknowledgements :- Mr. Abdul Razak Mohd Nor Rasid, Mr. Ahmad Amir Firdaus Bin Mad Apandi, Ms. Ajla Rafidah Baharom, Mrs. Aziemah Binti Kinan, Mr. Badrul Amin Bin Jaffar, Ms. Norazah Binti Norddin, Mrs. Nur Hazwanie Binti Abd Halim, Ms. Nurfadzilah Bt Azmi, Ms. Nurfarhana Hizan Binti Hijas, Mr. Tan Kok Kiat & Mr. Yasser Mohamed Arifin

Photo credit :- Chan Kin Onn, Dr Teo Eng Wah & Norhayati Binti Ahmad

Species Citation :- Trimeresurus nebularis. Malaysia Biodiversity Information System (MyBIS). Accessed via https://www.mybis.gov.my/sp/58162. [Retrieved 12 August 2022].

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Website Citation: MyBIS (2022). Malaysia Biodiversity Information System. Published on the Internet https://www.mybis.gov.my/, Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources, Malaysia Biodiversity Centre & Forest Research Institute Malaysia. [Retrieved 12 August 2022].