Native Animals

Varanus salvator

Water Monitor
LC
Least Concern
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
ver 3.1, 2021
QR Code
SSN 09899
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Taxonomy

The taxonomic status is pending for approval

Description

One of the largest lizards in the world is Water Monitor. It can be recognized by the long, flattened snout which bears oval nostrils close to the tip. It inhabits well-watered areas from coastal zones up to 1,200m, from mangroves and beaches to inland swamps, agricultural lands and montane forests. It is active during the day and it feeds crabs, frogs, eggs, nestling birds, small mammal, lizards, large invertebrates and carrion. Juveniles feed on insects. Clutches of 15-30 eggs are laid early in the rainy season.

Habits

  Part Habit
 
Diurnal   —   Most active during the daytime.

Habitats

No Description Suitability Seasonality
1
Artificial - Terrestrial → Arable Land
Suitable Unknown
2
Artificial - Terrestrial → Plantations
Suitable Unknown
3
Artificial - Terrestrial → Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest
Suitable Unknown
4
Artificial - Terrestrial → Urban Areas
Suitable Unknown
5
Forest → Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Forest Vegetation Above High Tide Level
Suitable Unknown
6
Forest → Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland Forest
Suitable Unknown
7
Forest → Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane Forest
Suitable Unknown
8
Forest → Subtropical/Tropical Swamp Forest
Suitable Unknown
9
Shrubland → Subtropical/Tropical Moist Shrubland
Suitable Unknown
10
Wetlands → Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands [generally over 8 ha]
Suitable Unknown
11
Wetlands → Shrub Dominated Wetlands
Suitable Unknown
References : http://www.iucnredlist.org/technical-documents/classification-schemes/habitats-classification-scheme-ver3

Assessment

Year Published Assessment Red List Category Version
2021 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Least Concern (LC)
3.1
2010 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Least Concern (LC)
3.1

Location

by State Location
  • Johore 11
  • Kedah 6
  • Kelantan 2
  • Pahang 3
  • Perak 2
  • Sabah 1
  • Sarawak 1
  • Terengganu 2
  • Federal Territories of Putrajaya 2
Based on publications, specimens, and images

Specimen

Collection Center   Total
3

Biodiversity Experts

Profile
Amirrudin Bin Ahmad (Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT)
  • Amphibians
  • Dragonflies and Damselflies
  • Fishes
  • Reptiles
  • Biodiversity
  • Data Analysis
  • Digital Sequence Information (DSI)
  • Living Modified Organism (LMO)
  • Marine & Coastal
  • Protected Areas
  • Invasive Alien Species
  • PM
Chen Pelf Nyok (Dr.)
Turtle Conservation Society of Malaysia (TCS)
  • Turtle, Tortoise, and Terrapin (Ecology)
  • Reptiles (Ecology)
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Education
  • Environment
  • PM
Kaviarasu Munian (Mr.)
Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM)
  • Reptiles (Ecology)
  • Amphibians (Ecology)
  • Fishes (Ecology)
  • PM
Lim Boo Liat (Dr.)
  • Reptiles (Ecology)
  • Rodents (Ecology)
  • Amphibians (Ecology)
  • Biodiversity
  • Ecosystems
  • Invasive Alien Species
Mohd Abdul Muin Bin Md Akil (Mr.)
Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM)
  • Amphibians
  • Birds
  • Reptiles
  • Snakes
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Evolution
  • Genetics
  • Molecular
  • Protected Areas
  • Climate Change
  • Invasive Alien Species
Teo Eng Wah (Dr.)
University of Malaya (UM)
  • Reptiles
  • Amphibians
  • Invasive Alien Species
PM - Peninsular Malaysia; SBH - Sabah; SWK - Sarawak; SEA - Southeast Asia; W - World;

References

Article
  1. Chan, K.O., Mohd Abdul Muin, M.A., Shahrul Anuar, M.S., Andam, J., Razak, N. & Aziz, M.A. (2019). First checklist on the amphibians and reptiles of Mount Korbu, the second highest peak in Peninsular Malaysia. Checklist 15 (6): pp. 1055-1069 — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  2. Denzer, W. & Mantley, U. (1991). A Nominal Checklist of the Lizards inhabiting Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 39 (2): pp. 309-322
  3. Harrison, J.L. & Lim, B.L. (1957). Monitor Lizards of Malaya. Malayan Nature Journal 12: pp. 1-10
  4. Ibrahim, J., Shahrul Anuar, M.S., Norhayati, A., Nor, S.M., Shahriza, S., Nurul 'Ain, E., Nor Zalipah, M. & Rayan, D.M. (2006). An Annotated Checklist of Herpetofauna of Langkawi Island, Kedah, Malaysia. Malayan Nature Journal 58: pp. 1-15
  5. Ibrahim, J., Awang, Z., Shahriza, S., Shahrul Anuar, M.S., Ibrahim, N.H., Hurzaid, A., Rahim, N.D.A., Min, M.A. & Ismail, A. (2012). Checklist of the Herpetofauna of Bukit Perangin Forest Reserve, Kedah, Malaysia. Sains Malaysiana 41 (6): pp. 691-696
  6. Karuppannan, S., Baharuddin, Z.M., Sivam, A. & Daniels, C.B. (2014). Urban Green Space and Urban Biodiversity: Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Journal of Sustainable Development 7 (1): pp. 1-16
  7. Lee Grismer, L., Youmans, T.M., Wood Jr., P.L. & Grismer, J.L. (2006). Checklist Of The Herpetofauna Of The Seribuat Archipelago, West Malaysia With Comments On Biogeography, Natural History, and Adaptive Types. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 54 (1): pp. 157-180
  8. Lim, B.L., Noor Alif Wira, O., Chan, K.O., Daicus, B. & Norhayati, A. (2010). An Updated Checklist of the Herpetofauna of Pulau Singa Besar, Langkawi, Peninsular Malaysia. Malaysian Applied Biology Journal 39 (1): pp. 13-23
  9. Lim, K.K.P. & Lim, L.J. (1999). The Terrestrial Herpetofauna of Pulau Tioman, Peninsular Malaysia. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Supplements (6): pp. 131-155
  10. Magintan, D., Ilias, R., Ismail, A., Adrian, J., Rasdi, I. & Mohd. Sanusi, M. (2015). A Preliminary Observation of Mammals and Other Species Visiting Artificial Salt Licks in Peninsular Malaysia. Journal of Wildlife and Parks 30: pp. 59-74
  11. Mat Diah, S.Z., Hashim, R., Yong, H.S., Daicus, B., Syuhadah Dzarawi, N. & Lim, B.L. (2010). Preliminary Survey of Lizards of Pantai Melawi, Bachok, Kelantan, Malaysia. Malaysian Journal of Science 29: pp. 117-120
  12. Mohd Abdul Muin, M.A., Quah, E.S.H., Shahrul Anuar, M.S., Azman, N.M., Shafie, N.J., Omar, M.Y., Rahmad, Z. & Asyraf, M. (2017). Annotated Checklist of Herpetofauna of Gunung Basor Forest Reserve, Pergau, Kelantan. : pp. 80-85
  13. Norhayati, A., Farah, A.D., Chan, K.O., Mohd Abdul Muin, M.A. & Daicus, B. (2011). An Update Of Herpetofaunal Records From Bukit Fraser, Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia. Malaysian Applied Biology Journal 40 (2): pp. 9-17
  14. Norshaqinah, A., Muzneena, A.M., Senawi, J. & Norhayati, A. (2018). Distribution and abundance of vertebrate animal road-kills on Pulau Langkawi, Kedah, Peninsular Malaysia. Malayan Nature Journal. : pp. 9
  15. Nurulhuda, Z., Senawi, J., Musa, F.H., Daicus, B., Chan, K.O., Nor, S.M. & Norhayati, A. (2014). Species composition of Amphibians and Reptiles in Krau Wildlife Reserve, Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia. Check List: Journal of Species Lists and Distribution 10 (2): pp. 335-343 — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  16. Polgar, G. (2012). Ecology and Evolution of Mudskippers and Oxudercine Gobies (Gobiidae:Oxudercinae): Perspectives and Possible Research Directions. : pp. 117-137
  17. Quah, E.S.H., Shahrul Anuar, M.S., Mohd Abdul Muin, M.A., Chan, K.O., Grismer, J.L. & Lee Grismer, L. (2011). Preliminary Checklist of the Herpetofauna of Jerejak Island, Penang, Malaysia. Malayan Nature Journal 63 (3): pp. 595-600
  18. Quah, E.S.H., Mohd Abdul Muin, M.A., Nur Amira, A.R., Fatim Syakirah, M., Shahrul Anuar, M.S. & Lee Grismer, L. (2013). Species Diversity of Herpetofauna of Bukit Panchor State Park, Penang, Peninsular Malaysia. Malayan Nature Journal 64 (4): pp. 193-211
  19. Shahriza, S., Ibrahim, J., Ibrahim, N.H., Ismail, A., Hurzaid, A., Awang, Z. & Shahrul Anuar, M.S. (2013). An Addition of Reptiles of Gunung Inas, Kedah, Malaysia. Russian Journal of Herpetology 20 (3): pp. 171-180
  20. Shahriza, S., Ibrahim, J., Rahim, N.D.A. & Mohd Abdul Muin, M.A. (2011). An Annotated Checklist of the Herpetofauna of Beris Valley, Kedah, Malaysia. Tropical Life Sciences Research (TSLR) 22 (1): pp. 13-25
  21. Shahriza, S., Ibrahim, J., Shahrul Anuar, M.S. & Mohd Abdul Muin, M.A. (2012). Herpetofauna of Peta Area of Endau-Rompin National Park,Johor, Malaysia. Pertanika Journal of Tropical Agricultural Science 35 (3): pp. 553-567
  22. Shahriza, S. & Ibrahim, J. (2014). Reptiles of Lata Bukit Hijau, Kedah, Malaysia. Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology 36 (1): pp. 37-44
Book
  1. Guidebook to the Biodiversity of Linting wetlands, 2015. Wetlands International, Malaysia. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  2. Heritage of Kubang Badak: Guide to Discover Kubang Badak Biogeotrail, 2018. Pusat Penyelidikan Langkawi, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia & Lembaga Pembangunan Langkawi, Malaysia. pp. 62.
  3. Looking at Loagan - A Journey Into Loagan Bunut National Park, Sarawak, 2006. Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia. pp. 75.
  4. Abdul Rahman, A.R., Mohd Nasir, A.H., Mohamed Zin, Y., Richard, A.M. & Latiff, A. (2013). Banjaran Bintang Gunung Inas, Kedah: Pengurusan Hutan, Persekitaran Fizikal dan Kepelbagaian Biologi. Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 245.
  5. Abdul Rahman, A.R., Mohd Nasir, A.H., Azmi, N., Nor Hasliza, M.B. & Latiff, A. (2014). Hutan Simpan Gunung Tebu, Terengganu: Pengurusan Hutan, Persekitaran Fizikal dan Kepelbagaian Biologi. Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 343.
  6. Akashah, M., Maimon, A., Norhayati, A., Noordin, N. & Nurliyana, A.R., Biodiversity in an urban ecosystem: Putrajaya Lake and Wetland. Perbadanan Putrajaya. pp. 185.
  7. Ang, L.H., Kaur, R. & Yusof, Z.A. (2012). Rimba Bidor: A Gift to Nature. Tin Tailings Afforestation Centre, Malaysia. pp. 108.
  8. Beastall, C.A. & Chng, S.C.L. (2021). Identification of Commonly Traded Wildlife in Southeast Asia. TRAFFIC, Southeast Asia Regional Office, Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  9. Cox, M.J., Van Dijk, P.P., Nabhitabhata, J. & Kumthorn, T. (2010). A Photographic Guide to Snakes and Other Reptiles of Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore & Thailand. New Holland Publishers (UK) Ltd. pp. 144.
  10. Das, I. (2010). A Field Guide to the Reptiles of South-East Asia. New Holland Publishers (UK), England. pp. 369.
  11. Hazebroek, H.P., Adlin, T.Z. & Sinun, W. (2011). Danum Valley: The Rain Forest. Natural History Publications (Borneo), Malaysia. pp. 615.
  12. Lee Grismer, L. (2005). Amphibians and Reptiles of the Tioman Archipelago, Malaysia. Forestry Department Peninsular Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 215.
  13. Maimon, A. (2008). Biodiversity of Sungai Pulai: Ramsar Site, Johor. Earth Observation Centre, Malaysia. pp. 97.
  14. Malkmus, R., Mantley, U., Vogel, G., Hoffmann, P. & Kosuch, J. (2002). Amphibians & Reptiles of Mount Kinabalu (North Borneo). Gantner Verlag, Germany. pp. 424.
  15. Meijaard, E., Garcia-Ulloa, J, Sheil, D, Wich, S., Carlson, K.M, Juffe-Bignoli, D & Brooks, T.M (2018). Oil palm and biodiversity : a situation analysis by the IUCN Oil Palm Task Force. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. pp. 116. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  16. Mohammad Khairi, A (2007). Taman Negara Pulau Pinang: Sinar Mutiara Belantara. Jabatan Perlindungan Hidupan Liar dan Taman Negara, Malaysia. pp. 112.
  17. Nee, T. A. & Norhayati, N. (2018). Compendium of Facts and Figures. 3rd Edition, Volume 3. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Malaysia. pp. 174.
  18. Norhayati, A. & Chong, M.H.N. (2016). Amphibians, Reptiles and Mammals of Putrajaya Lake and Wetland. Perbadanan Putrajaya, Malaysia. pp. 100.
  19. Phang, S.M., Affendi, Y.A., Ooi, J.L.S. & Haji, A.J.M. (2008). Natural History of The Pulau Tioman Group of Islands. Institute of Ocean and Earth Sciences (IOES), University of Malaya, Malaysia. pp. 292.
  20. Praveena, B.K. & Maria Arlene, J.A.S. (2013). Compendium of Facts and Figures. 2nd Edition. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Malaysia. pp. 161.
  21. Shaharuddin, M.I., Che, H.H., Mohd. Puat, Dahalan, Jalil, M.S., Norhaidi, Y. & Latiff, A. (2005). Hutan Simpan Ulu Muda, Kedah: Pengurusan, Persekitaran Fizikal Dan Biologi. Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 310.
  22. Shaharuddin, M.I., Azahar, M., Razani, U., Kamaruzaman, A.B., Lim, K.L., Suhaili, R., Jalil, M.S. & Latiff, A. (2005). Sustainable Management of Matang Mangroves: 100 Years and Beyond. Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 531.
  23. Shaharuddin, M.I., Dahalan, H.T., Abdullah Sani, Shafie, Jalil, M.S., Faridah-Hanum, I. & Latiff, A. (2005). Taman Negeri Gunung Stong, Kelantan: Pengurusan, Persekitaran Fizikal, Biologi dan Sosio-ekonomi. Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 442.
  24. Suhaila, A.H. & Nik Ahmad Irwan Izzauddin, N. H. (2014). Biodiversity of Gunung Ledang Mountaineering The Nature. School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia and Johor National Parks Corporation, Malaysia. pp. 165.
  25. T. Marina, T. Ibrahim & Shamsul, K. (2009). Kepelbagaian Biologi Flora, Fauna dan Nilai Ekonomi Hutan Simpan Tranum, Pahang. Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 140.
Chapter in book
  1. Das, I. & Norsham, S.Y. (2007). Status of Knowledge of The Malaysia Herpetofauna. In Chua, L.S.L., Kirton, L.G. & Saw, L.G. (Eds.), Status of Biological Diversity in Malaysia and Threat Assessment of Plant Species in Malaysia: Proceedings of the Seminar and Workshop, 28-30 June 2005. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM). pp. 31-81.
Journal
  1. Malayan Nature Journal, Volume 73, Issue 3, p. 419, 2021
Magazine/Bulletin
  1. Identification of Commonly Traded Wildlife with a focus on the Golden Triangle (Lao PDR, Myanmar and Thailand) (2020). TRAFFIC, Southeast Asia Regional Office, Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  2. ASEAN Biodiversity Magazine, Vol. 12 (3), 9/2013. ASEAN Centre for Biodiversity — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
Report
  1. Laporan Inventori Hidupan Liar Putrajaya 2019. Kementerian Air, Tanah dan Sumber Asli (KATS) dan Jabatan Perlindungan Hidupan Liar dan Taman Negara Semenanjung Malaysia (PERHILITAN), Malaysia. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  2. Laporan Program Kajian Inventori dan Pengurusan Hidupan Liar Tahun 2017, Wilayah Persekutuan Putrajaya. Perbadanan Putrajaya & PERHILITAN, Malaysia.
  3. Report On Habitat And Ecological Research After Wavebreaker Project At Tanjung Piai Johor National Park. Perbadanan Taman Negara (Johor), Malaysia.
  4. Krishnasamy, K. & Zavagli, M. (2020). Southeast Asia: At the heart of wildlife trade. TRAFFIC, Southeast Asia Regional Office, Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  5. Schoppe, S. (2008). Science in CITES: The biology and ecology of the Southeast Asian Box Turtle and its uses and trade in Malaysia. TRAFFIC Southeast Asia, Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
Unpublish
  1. Checklist of Biodiversity of Setiu (2019)

Acknowledgements :- Mr. Abdul Razak Mohd Nor Rasid, Mr. Ahmad Amir Firdaus Bin Mad Apandi, Ms. Aida Salihah Binti Abu Bakar, Ms. Amirah Hasanah Binti Mazlan, Mrs. Aziemah Binti Kinan, Mr. Badrul Amin Bin Jaffar, Ms. Fatin Farisha Binti Mohd Jamil, Ms. Mira Farzana Binti Mohamad Mokhtar, Ms. Noor Amira Aini Binti Noor Anwar, Ms. Nor Liyana Binti Hassan, Ms. Norayuni Binti Ramlee, Ms. Norazah Binti Norddin, Ms. Nur Farahin Binti Mustafa, Mrs. Nur Hazwanie Binti Abd Halim, Ms. Nurfarhana Hizan Binti Hijas, Ms. Nurul Aimi Amirah Binti Mohd Zaki, Ms. Siti Zubaidah Binti Abdul Latif, Mr. Tan Kok Kiat, Ms. Umairah Binti Ishak & Mr. Yasser Mohamed Arifin

Photo credit :- Kaviarasu Munian, Norhayati Binti Ahmad & Yasser Arifin

Species Citation :- Varanus salvator. Malaysia Biodiversity Information System (MyBIS). Accessed via https://www.mybis.gov.my/sp/9899. [Retrieved 07 July 2022].

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Website Citation: MyBIS (2022). Malaysia Biodiversity Information System. Published on the Internet https://www.mybis.gov.my/, Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources, Malaysia Biodiversity Centre & Forest Research Institute Malaysia. [Retrieved 07 July 2022].