Native

Ophiophagus hannah

King Cobra
VU
Vulnerable
IUCN Red List
ver 3.1, 2012
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Taxonomy

The taxanomic status is pending for approval

Gallery  

Adult
Adult
Skin
Adult

Description

The king cobra has an average length of about 3–4 m. It is called a 'king' because it is known to be the longest venomous snake in the world growing up to 5 m long with the longest world record at 5.85 m and it also feeds on other snakes. This species would raise its anterior third and expand its hood when being threatened. It rarely produces any warning sound and there is no hood marking. The hood of the king cobra appears to be extended longer and narrower than cobras of the Naja spp. Identification of the king cobra was done by the presence of one pair of occipital scales. The body coloration and pattern of this species varies regionally. North specimens are dark with black bands, central specimens in brown with yellow bands while the south specimens are pale brown or olive without bands (Sibunruang et al., 2013). The king cobra is one of the few species of snake that will guard its nest until the young hatches.

Habits

  Habit
Oviparous   —   Reproduction through production of eggs that have membranes and/or shells.
Terrestrial   —   An animal that lives on/near the ground or a plant that grows on/in/from land
Venomous   —   Capable of injecting venom by means of a bite or sting.

Habitats

No Description Suitability Seasonality
1
Artificial - Aquatic → Irrigated Land [includes irrigation channels]
Suitable Unknown
2
Artificial - Terrestrial → Arable Land
Suitable Unknown
3
Artificial - Terrestrial → Plantations
Suitable Unknown
4
Artificial - Terrestrial → Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest
Suitable Unknown
5
Forest → Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Forest Vegetation Above High Tide Level
Suitable Unknown
6
Forest → Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland Forest
Suitable Unknown
7
Forest → Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane Forest
Suitable Unknown
8
Forest → Subtropical/Tropical Swamp Forest
Suitable Unknown
9
Grassland → Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude Grassland
Suitable Unknown
10
Shrubland → Subtropical/Tropical Moist Shrubland
Suitable Unknown
11
Wetlands → Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands [generally over 8 ha]
Suitable Unknown
12
Wetlands → Shrub Dominated Wetlands
Suitable Unknown
References : http://www.iucnredlist.org/technical-documents/classification-schemes/habitats-classification-scheme-ver3

Assessment

Antivenom

Manufacturer First Dose/vials
King Cobra Antivenin to Neutralize 0.8 mg/ml of venom
QSMI Thai Red Cross
100 mls / 10 vials
Subsequent dose 1-2 hr
Neuro Polyvalent Snake Antivenom
QSMI Thai Red Cross
50-100 mls / 5-10 vials
Subsequent dose 1-2 hr

Biodiversity Experts

Profile
Amirrudin Bin Ahmad (Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT)
  • Amphibians
  • Dragonflies and Damselflies
  • Fishes
  • Reptiles
  • Biodiversity
  • Data Analysis
  • Digital Sequence Information (DSI)
  • Living Modified Organism (LMO)
  • Marine & Coastal
  • Protected Areas
  • Invasive Alien Species
  • PM
Chen Pelf Nyok (Dr.)
Turtle Conservation Society of Malaysia (TCS)
  • Turtles (Ecology)
  • Reptiles (Ecology)
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Education
  • Environment
  • PM
Kaviarasu Munian (Mr.)
Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM)
  • Reptiles (Ecology)
  • Amphibians (Ecology)
  • Fishes (Ecology)
  • PM
Lim Boo Liat (Dr.)
Academy of Sciences Malaysia (ASM)
  • Reptiles (Ecology)
  • Rodents (Ecology)
  • Amphibians (Ecology)
  • Biodiversity
  • Ecosystems
  • Invasive Alien Species
Mohd Abdul Muin Bin Md Akil (Mr.)
Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM)
  • Amphibians
  • Birds
  • Reptiles
  • Snakes
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Evolution
  • Genetics
  • Molecular
  • Protected Areas
  • Climate Change
  • Invasive Alien Species
Teo Eng Wah (Dr.)
University of Malaya (UM)
  • Reptiles
  • Amphibians
  • Invasive Alien Species
PM - Peninsular Malaysia; SBH - Sabah; SWK - Sarawak; SEA - Southeast Asia; W - World;

References

Article
  1. Das, I. (2006). Crocker Range National Park, Sabah, as a refuge for Borneo's montane herpetofauna. Amphibian and Reptile Conservation 4 (1): pp. 3-11(e15)
  2. Shahriza, S., Ibrahim, J., Ibrahim, N.H., Ismail, A., Hurzaid, A., Awang, Z. & Shahrul Anuar, M.S. (2013). An Addition of Reptiles of Gunung Inas, Kedah, Malaysia. Russian Journal of Herpetology 20 (3): pp. 171-180
  3. Lee Grismer, L., Chan, K.O., Grismer, J.L., Wood Jr., P.L. & Norhayati, A. (2010). A Checklist of the Herpetofauna of the Banjaran Bintang, Peninsular Malaysia. Russian Journal of Herpetology 17 (2): pp. 147-160
  4. Lim, B.L., Noor Alif Wira, O., Chan, K.O., Daicus, B. & Norhayati, A. (2010). An Updated Checklist of the Herpetofauna of Pulau Singa Besar, Langkawi, Peninsular Malaysia. Malaysian Applied Biology Journal 39 (1): pp. 13-23
  5. Lim, K.K.P. & Lim, L.J. (1999). The Terrestrial Herpetofauna of Pulau Tioman, Peninsular Malaysia. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Supplements (6): pp. 131-155
  6. Murphy, J.C., Voris, H.K. & Karns, D.R. (1994). A Field Guide and Key to the Snakes of the Danum Valley, A Bornean Tropical Forest Ecosystem. Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society , Vol. 29 (7): pp. 133-151
  7. Quah, E.S.H., Mohd Abdul Muin, M.A., Nur Amira, A.R., Fatim Syakirah, M., Shahrul Anuar, M.S. & Lee Grismer, L. (2013). Species Diversity of Herpetofauna of Bukit Panchor State Park, Penang, Peninsular Malaysia. Malayan Nature Journal 64 (4): pp. 193-211
  8. Shahriza, S. & Ibrahim, J. (2014). Reptiles of Lata Bukit Hijau, Kedah, Malaysia. Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology 36 (1): pp. 37-44
Book
  1. Guideline: Management of Snakebite, 2017. Ministry of Health Malaysia, Putrajaya, Malaysia. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  2. Guidelines for the Management of Snakebites, 2nd edition, 2016. WHO Regional Office for South-East Asia, New Delhi, India. pp. 206.
  3. Snake Farm Exhibition, 2010. Snake Farm, Queen Saovabha Memorial Institute, The Thai Red Cross Society, Thailand. pp. 97.
  4. WHO Guidelines for the Production, Control and Regulation of Snake Antivenom Immunoglobulins, 2010. World Health Organization, Switzerland. pp. 140. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  5. Shaharuddin, M.I., Che, H.H., Mohd. Puat, Dahalan, Jalil, M.S., Norhaidi, Y. & Latiff, A. (2005). Hutan Simpan Ulu Muda, Kedah: Pengurusan, Persekitaran Fizikal Dan Biologi. Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 310.
  6. Das, I. (2010). A Field Guide to the Reptiles of South-East Asia. New Holland Publishers (UK), England. pp. 369.
  7. Das, I. (2012). A Naturalist's Guide to the Snakes of South-east Asia : Including Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Myanmar, Borneo, Sumatra, Java and Bali. John Beaufoy Publishing, Oxford, England. pp. 70-71; 160 pg.
  8. Hazebroek, H.P., Adlin, T.Z. & Sinun, W. (2011). Danum Valley: The Rain Forest. Natural History Publications (Borneo), Malaysia. pp. 615.
  9. Ismail, A.K., Teo, E.W., Das, I., Vasaruchapong, T. & Weinstein, S.A. (2017). Land Snakes of Medical Significance in Malaysia. Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Putrajaya, Malaysia. pp. 80. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) | eBook (EPUB) ]
  10. Rusli, N., Marlon, R., Lilley, R., Ekariyono, W. & Laister, A. (2016). Mengenal Ular Jabodetabek - Snakes of Jakarta and Its Surroundings. Ciliwung Reptile Center, Jakarta, Indonesia. pp. 168.
  11. Shaharuddin, M.I., Dahalan, H.T., Abdullah Sani, Shafie, Jalil, M.S., Faridah-Hanum, I. & Latiff, A. (2005). Taman Negeri Gunung Stong, Kelantan: Pengurusan, Persekitaran Fizikal, Biologi dan Sosio-ekonomi. Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 442.
  12. Lee Grismer, L. (2005). Amphibians and Reptiles of the Tioman Archipelago, Malaysia. Forestry Department Peninsular Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 215.
  13. Maimon, A. (2008). Biodiversity of Sungai Pulai: Ramsar Site, Johor. Earth Observation Centre, Malaysia. pp. 97.
  14. Praveena, B.K. & Maria Arlene, J.A.S. (2013). Compendium of Facts and Figures. 2nd Edition. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Malaysia. pp. 161.
  15. Musa, S., Fletcher, C., Mohti, A., Parlan, I. & Harun, I. (2015). Grandeur Of The Tropical Rainforest In Peninsular Malaysia. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM) & Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Malaysia (NRE), Malaysia. pp. 204.
  16. Nee, T. A. & Nordin, N. (2018). Compendium of Facts and Figures. 3rd Edition, Volume 3. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Malaysia. pp. 174.
  17. Marlon, R., Supriatna, J., Liswanto, D., Baskoro, K., Putra, S. & Patty, H.R. (2014). Panduan Visual dan Identifikasi Lapangan: 107+ Ular Indonesia. Indonesia Nature & Wildlife Publishing, Indonesia. pp. 251.
  18. Sitprija, V. & Suteparuk, S. (2012). Clinical Physiology of Animal Toxins: An Overview. Queen Saovabha Memorial Institute, The Thai Red Cross Society, Thailand. pp. 119.
  19. Sibunruang, S., Suteparuk, S. & Sitprija, V. (2013). Manual of Practical Management of Snake-bites and Animal Toxin Injury. Bangkok: Queen Saovabha Memorial Institute, The Thai Red Cross Society, Thailand. pp. 88.
  20. Inger, R.F. & Tan, F.L. (2010). The Natural History of Amphibians and Reptiles in Sabah. Natural History Publications (Borneo). pp. 121.
Chapter in book
  1. Inventori Hidupan Liar di Putrajaya. In Pelan Pengurusan Hidupan Liar Putrajaya. PERHILITAN & Perbadanan Putrajaya. pp. 1-52.
  2. Das, I. & Norsham, S.Y. (2007). Status of Knowledge of The Malaysia Herpetofauna. In Chua, L.S.L., Kirton, L.G. & Saw, L.G. (eds.) Status of Biological Diversity in Malaysia and Threat Assessment of Plant Species in Malaysia: Proceedings of the Seminar and Workshop, 28-30 June 2005. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM). pp. 31-81.
  3. Das, I., Norhayati, A. & Lim, B.L. (2015). Venomous Terrestrial Snakes of Malaysia: Their Identity and Biology. In Gopalakrishnakone, P., Faiz, M.A., Fernando, R., Gnanathasan, C.A., Habib, A.G. & Yang, C.-C. (eds.) Clinical Toxinology in Asia Pacific and Africa. Springer. pp. 53-69. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  4. Ismail, A.K. (January 2015). Snakebite and Envenomation Management in Malaysia. In Gopalakrishnakone, P., Faiz, M.A., Fernando, R., Gnanathasan, C.A., Habib, A.G. & Yang, C.-C. (eds.) Clinical Toxinology in Asia Pacific and Africa. Springer. pp. 71-102.
Report
  1. Laporan Program Kajian Inventori dan Pengurusan Hidupan Liar Tahun 2017, Wilayah Persekutuan Putrajaya. Perbadanan Putrajaya & PERHILITAN, Malaysia.

Acknowledgements :- Mr. Ahmad Amir Firdaus Bin Mad Apandi, Ms. Aida Salihah Binti Abu Bakar, Ms. Ajla Rafidah Baharom, Ms. Aziemah Binti Kinan, Ms. Noor Amira Aini Binti Noor Anwar, Ms. Nor Liyana Binti Hassan, Ms. Nur Hazwanie Binti Abd Halim, Ms. Nurfarhana Hizan Binti Hijas, Ms. Nurul Aimi Amirah Binti Mohd Zaki, Ms. Siti Zubaidah Binti Abdul Latif, Mr. Tan Kok Kiat & Mr. Yasser Mohamed Arifin

Citation :- Ophiophagus hannah. Malaysia Biodiversity Information System (MyBIS). https://www.mybis.gov.my/sp/9942. Downloaded on 20 June 2019.

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