The given variable is not an array and contains a null value. Heosemys spinosa Gray, 1831 | Geoemydidae | Malaysia Biodiversity Information System (MyBIS)
 
Native Animals

Heosemys spinosa

Spiny Turtle
EN
Endangered
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
ver 3.1, 2021
QR Code
SSN 09953
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Taxonomy

The taxonomic status is pending for approval

Description

Heosemys spinosa or the spiny turtle is a semi-aquatic turtle in Malaysia. Its common name come from its appearance which is sharp, pointed, spiky-edged carapace, and spiny keel. The long sharp spikes act as a protection or shield for the young turtles from its predators. However, the spikes become worn down and are lost with age.  Unlike marine turtles, the spiny turtle spends most of its time on land in hill forest (Musa et al., 2015). This species ranges throughout Southeast Asia, with Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand as the native countries. It feeds on seeds, plants, insects and carcasses. Due to over-collection from the wild for the Asian food market and international pet trade, and threatened by habitat destruction, this species is listed as Endangered (EN) by the IUCN Red List (IUCN, 2000).

Habits

  Part Habit
 
Oviparous   —   Reproduction through production of eggs that have membranes and/or shells.
 
Terrestrial   —   An animal that lives on/near the ground or a plant that grows on/in/from land

Assessment

Year Published Assessment Red List Category Version
2021 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Endangered (EN)
3.1
2000 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Endangered (EN)
2.3
1996 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Vulnerable (VU)
N/A

Biodiversity Experts

Profile
Amirrudin Bin Ahmad (Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT)
  • Amphibians
  • Dragonflies and Damselflies
  • Fishes
  • Reptiles
  • Biodiversity
  • Data Analysis
  • Digital Sequence Information (DSI)
  • Living Modified Organism (LMO)
  • Marine & Coastal
  • Protected Areas
  • Invasive Alien Species
  • PM
Charles Leh Moi Ung (Dr.)
Sarawak Museum Department (JMS)
  • Fishes
  • Turtle, Tortoise, and Terrapin
  • Crustaceans
  • Biodiversity
  • Science
  • SWK
Chen Pelf Nyok (Dr.)
Turtle Conservation Society of Malaysia (TCS)
  • Turtle, Tortoise, and Terrapin (Ecology)
  • Reptiles (Ecology)
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Education
  • Environment
  • PM
Kaviarasu Munian (Mr.)
Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM)
  • Reptiles (Ecology)
  • Amphibians (Ecology)
  • Fishes (Ecology)
  • PM
Lim Boo Liat (Dr.)
  • Reptiles (Ecology)
  • Rodents (Ecology)
  • Amphibians (Ecology)
  • Biodiversity
  • Ecosystems
  • Invasive Alien Species
Mohamad Rosni Bin Othman (Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT)
  • Amphibians
  • Coral Reefs
  • Turtle, Tortoise, and Terrapin
  • Amphibians
  • Law and Policy
  • Management
  • Marine & Coastal
  • PM
  • W
Mohammad Shahfiz Azman (Mr.)
Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM)
  • Amphibians
  • Mammals
  • Birds
  • Amphibians
  • Reptiles
  • Awareness
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Ecosystems
  • Environment
  • Forest
  • Landscape
  • Law and Policy
  • Management
  • Protected Areas
  • Science
  • Systematics
  • Invasive Alien Species
  • Like-Minded Megadiverse Countries (LMMC)
  • National Policy on Biological Diversity
  • Policy
  • Research and Development (R&D)
  • Zoonotic
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
Mohd Abdul Muin Bin Md Akil (Mr.)
Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM)
  • Amphibians
  • Birds
  • Reptiles
  • Snakes
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Evolution
  • Genetics
  • Molecular
  • Protected Areas
  • Climate Change
  • Invasive Alien Species
Mohd Uzair Rusli (Assoc. Prof. Dr.)
  • Turtle, Tortoise, and Terrapin
  • Reptiles
  • Conservation
  • Data Analysis
  • Ecology
  • Marine & Coastal
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
  • W
Teo Eng Wah (Dr.)
University of Malaya (UM)
  • Reptiles
  • Amphibians
  • Invasive Alien Species
PM - Peninsular Malaysia; SBH - Sabah; SWK - Sarawak; SEA - Southeast Asia; W - World;

References

Article
  1. Chan, K.O., Van Rooijen, J., Lee Grismer, L., Daicus, B., Jamaludin, H., Gregory, R., Norhayati, A. & Mohd Abdul Muin, M.A. (2010). First report on the herpetofauna of Pulau Pangkor, Perak, Malaysia. Russian Journal of Herpetology 17 (2), 139-146 — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  2. Ibrahim, J., Awang, Z., Shahriza, S., Shahrul Anuar, M.S., Ibrahim, N.H., Hurzaid, A., Rahim, N.D.A., Min, M.A. & Ismail, A. (2012). Checklist of the Herpetofauna of Bukit Perangin Forest Reserve, Kedah, Malaysia. Sains Malaysiana 41 (6), 691-696
  3. Jensen, K.A. & Das, I. (2008). Observations on the Influence of Seasonality, Lunar Cycles, and Weather Condition on Freshwater Turtle Activity in Sarawak, East Malaysia (Borneo). Asiatic Herpetological Research 11, 39-44. http://www.asiatic-herpetological.org/Archive/Volume2011/11_07.pdf
  4. Lee Grismer, L., Chan, K.O., Grismer, J.L., Wood Jr., P.L. & Norhayati, A. (2010). A Checklist of the Herpetofauna of the Banjaran Bintang, Peninsular Malaysia. Russian Journal of Herpetology 17 (2), 147-160. http://biodiversity.fbb.utm.my/izoo/sites/default/files/A%20checklist%20of%20the%20herpetofauna%20of%20Banjaran%20Bintang,%20Peninsular%20Malaysia.pdf
  5. Nurulhuda, Z., Senawi, J., Musa, F.H., Daicus, B., Chan, K.O., Nor, S.M. & Norhayati, A. (2014). Species composition of Amphibians and Reptiles in Krau Wildlife Reserve, Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia. Check List: Journal of Species Lists and Distribution 10 (2), 335-343 — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  6. Quah, E.S.H., Mohd Abdul Muin, M.A., Nur Amira, A.R., Fatim Syakirah, M., Shahrul Anuar, M.S. & Lee Grismer, L. (2013). Species Diversity of Herpetofauna of Bukit Panchor State Park, Penang, Peninsular Malaysia. Malayan Nature Journal 64 (4), 193-211
  7. Shahirah-Ibrahim, N., Baizul-Hafsyam, B.S., Shafie, N.J. & Ahmad, A. (2018). Species Diversity of Freshwater Turtles and Tortoises in Terengganu, Malaysia. Journal of Sustainability Science and Management (1), 27. http://jssm.umt.edu.my/wp-content/uploads/sites/51/2019/01/SPECIES-DIVERSITY-OF-FRESHWATER-TURTLES-AND-TOROISES-IN-TERENGGANU-MALAYSIA-AMIRRUDDIN1.pdf
  8. Shahriza, S., Ibrahim, J., Ibrahim, N.H., Ismail, A., Hurzaid, A., Awang, Z. & Shahrul Anuar, M.S. (2013). An Addition of Reptiles of Gunung Inas, Kedah, Malaysia. Russian Journal of Herpetology 20 (3), 171-180
  9. Shahriza, S. & Ibrahim, J. (2014). Reptiles of Lata Bukit Hijau, Kedah, Malaysia. Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology 36 (1), 37-44. http://rdo.psu.ac.th/sjstweb/journal/36-1/36-1-5.pdf
  10. Sumarli, A.X., Lee Grismer, L., Mohd Abdul Muin, M.A., Quah, E.S.H. & Shahrul Anuar, M.S. (2015). First Report on the Amphibians and Reptiles of a Remote Mountain, Gunung Tebu in Northeastern Peninsular Malaysia. Check List: The Journal of Biodiversity Data 11 (4), 1679
Book
  1. Abd. Latif, M., Mohti, A., Samsudin, M. & Parlan, I. (2020). Malaysia's Tropical Rainforests - Splendour To Behold. Forest Research Institute Malaysia. pp. 212.
  2. Abdul Rahman, A.R., Mohd Nasir, A.H., Azmi, N., Nor Hasliza, M.B. & Latiff, A. (2014). Hutan Simpan Gunung Tebu, Terengganu: Pengurusan Hutan, Persekitaran Fizikal dan Kepelbagaian Biologi. Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 343.
  3. Auliya, M. (2007). An Identification Guide to the Tortoises and Freshwater Turtles of Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Singapore and Timor Leste. TRAFFIC Southeast Asia, Petaling Jaya, Malaysia. pp. 90.
  4. Beastall, C.A. & Chng, S.C.L. (2021). Identification of Commonly Traded Wildlife in Southeast Asia. TRAFFIC, Southeast Asia Regional Office, Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  5. Das, I. (2010). A Field Guide to the Reptiles of South-East Asia. New Holland Publishers (UK), England. pp. 369.
  6. Hazebroek, H.P., Adlin, T.Z. & Sinun, W. (2011). Danum Valley: The Rain Forest. Natural History Publications (Borneo), Malaysia. pp. 615.
  7. Kolby, J.E (2021). Identification Guide to Tortoises and Freshwater Turtles: Parts, Products and Derivatives in Trade. CITES Secretariat, Geneva, Switzerland. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  8. Malkmus, R., Mantley, U., Vogel, G., Hoffmann, P. & Kosuch, J. (2002). Amphibians & Reptiles of Mount Kinabalu (North Borneo). Gantner Verlag, Germany. pp. 424.
  9. Mohammad Khairi, A (2007). Taman Negara Pulau Pinang: Sinar Mutiara Belantara. Jabatan Perlindungan Hidupan Liar dan Taman Negara, Malaysia. pp. 112.
  10. Nee, T. A. & Norhayati, N. (2018). Compendium of Facts and Figures. 3rd Edition, Volume 3. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Malaysia. pp. 174.
  11. Nik Ahmad Irwan Izzauddin, N. H., Suhaila, A.H. & Zarul, H.H. (2019). Royal Belum-Temengor Rainforest : The Hidden Treasure of Perak. Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia and Kementerian Air, Tanah dan Sumber Asli. pp. 300.
  12. Praveena, B.K. & Maria Arlene, J.A.S. (2013). Compendium of Facts and Figures. 2nd Edition. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Malaysia. pp. 161.
  13. Ratnam, L. (1995). Windows on The Forest: Glimpses of FRIM for the Nature Loving Visitor, Issue/No. 1. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Malaysia. pp. 143.
  14. Samsudin, M., Fletcher, C., Mohti, A., Parlan, I. & Harun, I. (2015). Grandeur Of The Tropical Rainforest In Peninsular Malaysia. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM) & Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Malaysia (NRE), Malaysia. pp. 204.
  15. Shaharuddin, M.I., Che, H.H., Mohd. Puat, Dahalan, Jalil, M.S., Norhaidi, Y. & Latiff, A. (2005). Hutan Simpan Ulu Muda, Kedah: Pengurusan, Persekitaran Fizikal Dan Biologi. Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 310.
Chapter in book
  1. Das, I. & Norsham, S.Y. (2007). Status of Knowledge of The Malaysia Herpetofauna. In Chua, L.S.L., Kirton, L.G. & Saw, L.G. (Eds.), Status of Biological Diversity in Malaysia and Threat Assessment of Plant Species in Malaysia: Proceedings of the Seminar and Workshop, 28-30 June 2005. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM). pp. 31-81.
Magazine/Bulletin
  1. Identification of Commonly Traded Wildlife with a focus on the Golden Triangle (Lao PDR, Myanmar and Thailand) (2020). TRAFFIC, Southeast Asia Regional Office, Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  2. ASEAN Biodiversity Magazine, Vol. 13 (1), 1/2014. ASEAN Centre for Biodiversity — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
Report
  1. Leupen, B.T.C. (2018). Black Spotted Turtle in Asia II: A Seizure Analysis. TRAFFIC, Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  2. Morgan, J. (2018). Slow and Steady: The Global Footprint of Jakarta’s Tortoise and Freshwater Turtle Trade. TRAFFIC, Southeast Asia Regional Office, Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  3. Sharma, D.S.K. (1999). Trade Review: Tortoise and Freshwater Turtle Trade and Utilisation in Peninsular Malaysia. A Traffic Southeast Asia Report. TRAFFIC Southeast Asia, Petaling Jaya, Malaysia. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
Unpublish
  1. Checklist of Biodiversity of Setiu (2019)

Acknowledgements :- Mr. Abdul Razak Mohd Nor Rasid, Mr. Ahmad Amir Firdaus Bin Mad Apandi, Ms. Aida Salihah Binti Abu Bakar, Mrs. Aziemah Binti Kinan, Mr. Badrul Amin Bin Jaffar, Ms. Mira Farzana Binti Mohamad Mokhtar, Ms. Noor Amira Aini Binti Noor Anwar, Ms. Norayuni Binti Ramlee, Ms. Norazah Binti Norddin, Mrs. Nur Hazwanie Binti Abd Halim, Mrs. Nurfarhana Hizan Binti Hijas, Ms. Nurul Aimi Amirah Binti Mohd Zaki, Mr. Tan Kok Kiat & Mr. Yasser Mohamed Arifin

Photo credit :- Dr Teo Eng Wah, USM & Yasser Arifin

Species Citation :- Heosemys spinosa. Malaysia Biodiversity Information System (MyBIS). Accessed via https://www.mybis.gov.my/sp/9953. [Retrieved 18 April 2024].

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Website Citation: MyBIS (2024). Malaysia Biodiversity Information System. Published on the Internet https://www.mybis.gov.my/, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental Sustainability, Malaysia Biodiversity Centre & Forest Research Institute Malaysia. [Retrieved 18 April 2024].