Native Animals

Heosemys spinosa

Spiny Turtle
EN
Endangered
IUCN Red List
ver 2.3, 2016
QR Code
SSN 09953
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Taxonomy

The taxanomic status is pending for approval

Gallery  

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Juvenile
Adult
Adult
Adult

Description

Heosemys spinosa or the spiny turtle is a semi-aquatic turtle in Malaysia. Its common name come from its appearance which is sharp, pointed, spiky-edged carapace, and spiny keel. The long sharp spikes act as a protection or shield for the young turtles from its predators. However, the spikes become worn down and are lost with age.  Unlike marine turtles, the spiny turtle spends most of its time on land in hill forest (Musa et al., 2015). This species ranges throughout Southeast Asia, with Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand as the native countries. It feeds on seeds, plants, insects and carcasses. Due to over-collection from the wild for the Asian food market and international pet trade, and threatened by habitat destruction, this species is listed as Endangered (EN) by the IUCN Red List (IUCN, 2000).

Habits

  Part Habit
 
Oviparous   —   Reproduction through production of eggs that have membranes and/or shells.
 
Terrestrial   —   An animal that lives on/near the ground or a plant that grows on/in/from land

Assessment

Biodiversity Experts

Profile
Amirrudin Bin Ahmad (Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT)
  • Amphibians
  • Dragonflies and Damselflies
  • Fishes
  • Reptiles
  • Biodiversity
  • Data Analysis
  • Digital Sequence Information (DSI)
  • Living Modified Organism (LMO)
  • Marine & Coastal
  • Protected Areas
  • Invasive Alien Species
  • PM
Charles Leh Moi Ung (Dr.)
Sarawak Museum Department (JMS)
  • Fishes
  • Turtles
  • Crustaceans
  • Biodiversity
  • Science
  • SWK
Chen Pelf Nyok (Dr.)
Turtle Conservation Society of Malaysia (TCS)
  • Turtles (Ecology)
  • Reptiles (Ecology)
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Education
  • Environment
  • PM
Kaviarasu Munian (Mr.)
Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM)
  • Reptiles (Ecology)
  • Amphibians (Ecology)
  • Fishes (Ecology)
  • PM
Lim Boo Liat (Dr.)
Academy of Sciences Malaysia (ASM)
  • Reptiles (Ecology)
  • Rodents (Ecology)
  • Amphibians (Ecology)
  • Biodiversity
  • Ecosystems
  • Invasive Alien Species
Mohamad Rosni Bin Othman (Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT)
  • Amphibians
  • Coral Reefs
  • Turtles
  • Amphibians
  • Law and Policy
  • Management
  • Marine & Coastal
  • PM
  • W
Mohd Abdul Muin Bin Md Akil (Mr.)
Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM)
  • Amphibians
  • Birds
  • Reptiles
  • Snakes
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Evolution
  • Genetics
  • Molecular
  • Protected Areas
  • Climate Change
  • Invasive Alien Species
Teo Eng Wah (Dr.)
University of Malaya (UM)
  • Reptiles
  • Amphibians
  • Invasive Alien Species
PM - Peninsular Malaysia; SBH - Sabah; SWK - Sarawak; SEA - Southeast Asia; W - World;

References

Article
  1. Shahirah-Ibrahim, N., Baizul-Hafsyam, B.S., Shafie, N.J. & Ahmad, A. (2018). Species Diversity of Freshwater Turtles and Tortoises in Terengganu, Malaysia. Journal of Sustainability Science and Management (1): pp. 27
  2. Jensen, K.A. & Das, I. (2008). Observations on the Influence of Seasonality, Lunar Cycles, and Weather Condition on Freshwater Turtle Activity in Sarawak, East Malaysia (Borneo). Asiatic Herpetological Research 11: pp. 39-44
  3. Lee Grismer, L., Chan, K.O., Grismer, J.L., Wood Jr., P.L. & Norhayati, A. (2010). A Checklist of the Herpetofauna of the Banjaran Bintang, Peninsular Malaysia. Russian Journal of Herpetology 17 (2): pp. 147-160
  4. Ibrahim, J., Awang, Z., Shahriza, S., Shahrul Anuar, M.S., Ibrahim, N.H., Hurzaid, A., Rahim, N.D.A., Min, M.A. & Ismail, A. (2012). Checklist of the Herpetofauna of Bukit Perangin Forest Reserve, Kedah, Malaysia. Sains Malaysiana 41 (6): pp. 691-696
  5. Nurulhuda, Z., Senawi, J., Musa, F.H., Daicus, B., Chan, K.O., Nor, S.M. & Norhayati, A. (2014). Species composition of Amphibians and Reptiles in Krau Wildlife Reserve, Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia. Check List: Journal of Species Lists and Distribution 10 (2): pp. 335-343 — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  6. Shahriza, S., Ibrahim, J., Ibrahim, N.H., Ismail, A., Hurzaid, A., Awang, Z. & Shahrul Anuar, M.S. (2013). An Addition of Reptiles of Gunung Inas, Kedah, Malaysia. Russian Journal of Herpetology 20 (3): pp. 171-180
  7. Shahriza, S. & Ibrahim, J. (2014). Reptiles of Lata Bukit Hijau, Kedah, Malaysia. Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology 36 (1): pp. 37-44
  8. Sumarli, A.X., Lee Grismer, L., Mohd Abdul Muin, M.A., Quah, E.S.H. & Shahrul Anuar, M.S. (2015). First Report on the Amphibians and Reptiles of a Remote Mountain, Gunung Tebu in Northeastern Peninsular Malaysia. Check List: The Journal of Biodiversity Data 11 (4): pp. 1679
  9. Quah, E.S.H., Mohd Abdul Muin, M.A., Nur Amira, A.R., Fatim Syakirah, M., Shahrul Anuar, M.S. & Lee Grismer, L. (2013). Species Diversity of Herpetofauna of Bukit Panchor State Park, Penang, Peninsular Malaysia. Malayan Nature Journal 64 (4): pp. 193-211
  10. Chan, K.O., Van Rooijen, J., Lee Grismer, L., Daicus, B., Jamaludin, H., Gregory, R., Norhayati, A. & Mohd Abdul Muin, M.A. (2010). First report on the herpetofauna of Pulau Pangkor, Perak, Malaysia. Russian Journal of Herpetology 17 (2): pp. 139-146 — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
Book
  1. Hazebroek, H.P., Adlin, T.Z. & Sinun, W. (2011). Danum Valley: The Rain Forest. Natural History Publications (Borneo), Malaysia. pp. 615.
  2. Das, I. (2010). A Field Guide to the Reptiles of South-East Asia. New Holland Publishers (UK), England. pp. 369.
  3. Musa, S., Fletcher, C., Mohti, A., Parlan, I. & Harun, I. (2015). Grandeur Of The Tropical Rainforest In Peninsular Malaysia. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM) & Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Malaysia (NRE), Malaysia. pp. 204.
  4. Malkmus, R., Mantley, U., Vogel, G., Hoffmann, P. & Kosuch, J. (2002). Amphibians & Reptiles of Mount Kinabalu (North Borneo). Gantner Verlag, Germany. pp. 424.
  5. Abdul Rahman, A.R., Mohd Nasir, A.H., Azmi, N., Nor Hasliza, M.B. & Latiff, A. (2014). Hutan Simpan Gunung Tebu, Terengganu: Pengurusan Hutan, Persekitaran Fizikal dan Kepelbagaian Biologi. Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 343.
  6. Shaharuddin, M.I., Che, H.H., Mohd. Puat, Dahalan, Jalil, M.S., Norhaidi, Y. & Latiff, A. (2005). Hutan Simpan Ulu Muda, Kedah: Pengurusan, Persekitaran Fizikal Dan Biologi. Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 310.
  7. Praveena, B.K. & Maria Arlene, J.A.S. (2013). Compendium of Facts and Figures. 2nd Edition. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Malaysia. pp. 161.
  8. Mark, Auliya (2007). An Identification Guide to the Tortoises and Freshwater Turtles of Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Singapore and Timor Leste. TRAFFIC Southeast Asia, Petaling Jaya, Malaysia. pp. 90.
  9. Mohammad Khairi, A (2007). Taman Negara Pulau Pinang: Sinar Mutiara Belantara. Jabatan Perlindungan Hidupan Liar dan Taman Negara, Malaysia. pp. 112.
  10. Nik Ahmad Irwan Izzauddin, N. H., Suhaila, A.H. & Zarul, H.H. (2019). Royal Belum-Temengor Rainforest : The Hidden Treasure of Perak. Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia and Kementerian Air, Tanah dan Sumber Asli. pp. 300.
  11. Nee, T. A. & Nordin, N. (2018). Compendium of Facts and Figures. 3rd Edition, Volume 3. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Malaysia. pp. 174.
  12. Ratnam, L. (1995). Windows on The Forest: Glimpses of FRIM for the Nature Loving Visitor, Issue/No. 1. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Malaysia. pp. 143.
Chapter in book
  1. Das, I. & Norsham, S.Y. (2007). Status of Knowledge of The Malaysia Herpetofauna. In Chua, L.S.L., Kirton, L.G. & Saw, L.G. (eds.) Status of Biological Diversity in Malaysia and Threat Assessment of Plant Species in Malaysia: Proceedings of the Seminar and Workshop, 28-30 June 2005. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM). pp. 31-81.
Report
  1. Leupen, B.T.C. (2018). Black Spotted Turtle in Asia II: A Seizure Analysis. TRAFFIC, Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  2. Morgan, J. (2018). Slow and Steady: The Global Footprint of Jakarta’s Tortoise and Freshwater Turtle Trade. TRAFFIC, Southeast Asia Regional Office, Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  3. Sharma, D.S.K. (1999). Trade Review: Tortoise and Freshwater Turtle Trade and Utilisation in Peninsular Malaysia. A Traffic Southeast Asia Report. TRAFFIC Southeast Asia, Petaling Jaya, Malaysia. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
Unpublish
  1. Checklist of Biodiversity of Setiu (2019)

Acknowledgements :- Mr. Abdul Razak Mohd Nor Rasid, Mr. Ahmad Amir Firdaus Bin Mad Apandi, Ms. Aida Salihah Binti Abu Bakar, Ms. Aziemah Binti Kinan, Mr. Badrul Amin Bin Jaffar, Ms. Mira Farzana Binti Mohamad Mokhtar, Ms. Noor Amira Aini Binti Noor Anwar, Ms. Norayuni Binti Ramlee, Ms. Norazah Binti Norddin, Ms. Nur Hazwanie Binti Abd Halim, Ms. Nurfarhana Hizan Binti Hijas, Ms. Nurul Aimi Amirah Binti Mohd Zaki, Mr. Tan Kok Kiat & Mr. Yasser Mohamed Arifin

Citation :- Heosemys spinosa. Malaysia Biodiversity Information System (MyBIS). https://www.mybis.gov.my/sp/9953. Downloaded on 14 December 2019.

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