Native Animals

Phrynoidis asper

River Toad
LC
Least Concern
IUCN Red List
ver 3.1, 2014
QR Code
SSN 19465
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Taxonomy

  • Kingdom
  • Phylum
  • Class
  • Order
  • Family
  • Genus
  • Species
    asper (Gravenhorst, 1829)
  • Synonym
  • Common Name
  • Residential
    Native
The taxanomic status is pending for approval

Gallery  

Adult
Adult
Juvenile
Juvenile
Adult

Description

River toad (Phrynoides asper) is a large toad with warty, dark brownish to blackish stout body. It has inconspicuous ‘x’ mark on the back between the round-to oval-shaped paratoid glands in young. This species is usually dark brown, gray or black in color, with black spotting ventrally. The tips of fingers of this species are rounded or swollen. Its eardrum is visible. The females have a snout-vent length of 95-215 mm, while the males have a snout-vent length of 70-100 mm. This toad can be found in primary forest and in freshwater wetland at all elevation. The altitude range of this species is from 0 m to 1000m a.s.l. This species is distributed in Thailand, Malaysia, Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia and Myanmar (Inger & Stuebing, 2005). 

Habits

  Part Habit
 
Terrestrial   —   An animal that lives on/near the ground or a plant that grows on/in/from land

Habitats

No Description Suitability Seasonality
1
Artificial - Terrestrial → Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest
Suitable Unknown
2
Forest → Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland Forest
Suitable Unknown
3
Forest → Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane Forest
Suitable Unknown
4
Wetlands → Permanent Rivers, Streams, Creeks [includes waterfalls]
Suitable Unknown
References : http://www.iucnredlist.org/technical-documents/classification-schemes/habitats-classification-scheme-ver3

Assessment

Location

by State Location
  • Johor 1
  • Kedah 5
  • Kelantan 2
  • Pahang 5
  • Terengganu 3
Based on publications, specimens, and images

Specimen

Collection Center Total
180

Biodiversity Experts

Profile
Amirrudin Bin Ahmad (Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT)
  • Amphibians
  • Dragonflies and Damselflies
  • Fishes
  • Reptiles
  • Biodiversity
  • Data Analysis
  • Digital Sequence Information (DSI)
  • Living Modified Organism (LMO)
  • Marine & Coastal
  • Protected Areas
  • Invasive Alien Species
  • PM
Awang Noor Abd. Ghani (Prof. Dr.)
Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM)
  • Amphibians (Ecology)
  • Biodiversity
  • Data Analysis
  • Economics
  • Ecosystems
  • Environment
  • Forest
  • PM
Kaviarasu Munian (Mr.)
Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM)
  • Reptiles (Ecology)
  • Amphibians (Ecology)
  • Fishes (Ecology)
  • PM
Lim Boo Liat (Dr.)
Academy of Sciences Malaysia (ASM)
  • Reptiles (Ecology)
  • Rodents (Ecology)
  • Amphibians (Ecology)
  • Biodiversity
  • Ecosystems
  • Invasive Alien Species
Mohamad Rosni Bin Othman (Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT)
  • Amphibians
  • Coral Reefs
  • Turtles
  • Amphibians
  • Law and Policy
  • Management
  • Marine & Coastal
  • PM
  • W
Mohd Abdul Muin Bin Md Akil (Mr.)
Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM)
  • Amphibians
  • Birds
  • Reptiles
  • Snakes
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Evolution
  • Genetics
  • Molecular
  • Protected Areas
  • Climate Change
  • Invasive Alien Species
Teo Eng Wah (Dr.)
University of Malaya (UM)
  • Reptiles
  • Amphibians
  • Invasive Alien Species
PM - Peninsular Malaysia; SBH - Sabah; SWK - Sarawak; SEA - Southeast Asia; W - World;

References

Article
  1. Nurulhuda, Z., Senawi, J., Musa, F.H., Daicus, B., Chan, K.O., Nor, S.M. & Norhayati, A. (2014). Species composition of Amphibians and Reptiles in Krau Wildlife Reserve, Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia. Check List: Journal of Species Lists and Distribution 10 (2): pp. 335-343 — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  2. Mohd Abdul Muin, M.A., Quah, E.S.H., Shahrul Anuar, M.S., Azman, N.M., Shafie, N.J., Omar, M.Y., Rahmad, Z. & Asyraf, M. (2017). Annotated Checklist of Herpetofauna of Gunung Basor Forest Reserve, Pergau, Kelantan. : pp. 80-85
  3. Norhayati, A., Mohamad Ruzi, A.R., Senawi, J., Daicus, B. & Chan, K.O. (2008). A Checklist of Amphibians at Taman Negara Kelantan National Park, Kuala Koh, Peninsular Malaysia. Journal of Wildlife and Parks 25: pp. 1-7
  4. Das, I. (2006). Crocker Range National Park, Sabah, as a refuge for Borneo's montane herpetofauna. Amphibian and Reptile Conservation 4 (1): pp. 3-11(e15)
  5. Lee Grismer, L., Chan, K.O., Grismer, J.L., Wood Jr., P.L. & Norhayati, A. (2010). A Checklist of the Herpetofauna of the Banjaran Bintang, Peninsular Malaysia. Russian Journal of Herpetology 17 (2): pp. 147-160
  6. Shahriza, S. & Ibrahim, J. (2017). A Survey of the Amphibian Species of Sungai Bubu, Anak Kurau, Perak, Peninsular Malaysia. Russian Journal of Herpetology 24 (1): pp. 54-62
  7. Ibrahim, J., Wong, J., Mohd Fazlin, M.S., Fatan, H.Y., Siti Hadijah, Y. & Norhaslinda, S. (2011). Amphibian Asemblage of Bubu Permanent Forest Reserve, Perak, Peninsular Malaysia. Malaysian Applied Biology Journal 40 (1): pp. 1-6
  8. Shahriza, S., Ibrahim, J., Rahim, N.D.A. & Mohd Abdul Muin, M.A. (2011). An Annotated Checklist of the Herpetofauna of Beris Valley, Kedah, Malaysia. Tropical Life Sciences Research (TSLR) 22 (1): pp. 13-25
  9. Shahriza, S., Ibrahim, J., Shahrul Anuar, M.S. & Mohd Abdul Muin, M.A. (2012). Herpetofauna of Peta Area of Endau-Rompin National Park,Johor, Malaysia. Pertanika Journal of Tropical Agricultural Science 35 (3): pp. 553-567
  10. Shahriza, S. & Ibrahim, J. (2012). The Amphibian Diversity of Bukit Jana, Taiping, Perak. Tropical Life Sciences Research (TSLR) 23 (2): pp. 49-57
  11. Shahriza, S., Ibrahim, J. & Shahrul Anuar, M.S. (2011). The Amphibian Fauna of Lata Bukit Hijau, Kedah, Malaysia. Russian Journal of Herpetology 18 (3): pp. 221-227
  12. Ibrahim, J., Awang, Z., Shahriza, S., Shahrul Anuar, M.S., Ibrahim, N.H., Hurzaid, A., Rahim, N.D.A., Min, M.A. & Ismail, A. (2012). Checklist of the Herpetofauna of Bukit Perangin Forest Reserve, Kedah, Malaysia. Sains Malaysiana 41 (6): pp. 691-696
  13. Savage, A.E., Chan, K.O., Grismer, J.L., Quah, E.S.H., Mohd Abdul Muin, M.A., Norhayati, A., Lenker, M., Lee Grismer, L., Zamudio, K.R. & Shahrul Anuar, M.S. (2011). First Record of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis Infecting Four Frog Families from Peninsular Malaysia. International Association for Ecology and Health (EcoHealth) 8 (1): pp. 121-128
  14. Lee Grismer, L., Sukumaran, J., Grismer, J.L., Youmans, T.M., Wood Jr., P.L. & Johnson, R. (2004). Report on the Herpetofauna from the Temengor Forest Reserve, Perak, West Malaysia. Hamadryad 29 (1): pp. 15-32
  15. Lee Grismer, L., Youmans, T.M., Wood Jr., P.L. & Grismer, J.L. (2006). Checklist Of The Herpetofauna Of The Seribuat Archipelago, West Malaysia With Comments On Biogeography, Natural History, and Adaptive Types. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 54 (1): pp. 157-180
  16. Lim, B.L., Noor Alif Wira, O., Chan, K.O., Daicus, B. & Norhayati, A. (2010). An Updated Checklist of the Herpetofauna of Pulau Singa Besar, Langkawi, Peninsular Malaysia. Malaysian Applied Biology Journal 39 (1): pp. 13-23
  17. Lim, K.K.P. & Lim, L.J. (1999). The Terrestrial Herpetofauna of Pulau Tioman, Peninsular Malaysia. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Supplements (6): pp. 131-155
  18. Das, I., Jankowski, A., Makmor, M.I.B. & Haas, A. (2007). Species diversity, elevational distribution and reproductive modes in an amphibian community at the Matang Range, Sarawak (Borneo). Mitt. Hamb. Zoo. Mus. Inst. 104: pp. 141-174
  19. Sumarli, A.X., Lee Grismer, L., Mohd Abdul Muin, M.A., Quah, E.S.H. & Shahrul Anuar, M.S. (2015). First Report on the Amphibians and Reptiles of a Remote Mountain, Gunung Tebu in Northeastern Peninsular Malaysia. Check List: The Journal of Biodiversity Data 11 (4): pp. 1679
  20. Munisamy, B., Ahmad Lotffi, M.A. & Abd Halim, M.F. (2014). Notes on Herpetofauna in Kuala Sungai Serloh, Krau Wildlife Reserve, Pahang, Malaysia. Journal of Wildlife and Parks 28: pp. 25-30
  21. Norhayati, A., Farah, A.D., Chan, K.O., Mohd Abdul Muin, M.A. & Daicus, B. (2011). An Update Of Herpetofaunal Records From Bukit Fraser, Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia. Malaysian Applied Biology Journal 40 (2): pp. 9-17
  22. Quah, E.S.H., Mohd Abdul Muin, M.A., Nur Amira, A.R., Fatim Syakirah, M., Shahrul Anuar, M.S. & Lee Grismer, L. (2013). Species Diversity of Herpetofauna of Bukit Panchor State Park, Penang, Peninsular Malaysia. Malayan Nature Journal 64 (4): pp. 193-211
  23. Ibrahim, J., Shahrul Anuar, M.S., Norhayati, A., Nor, S.M., Shahriza, S., Nurul 'Ain, E., Nor Zalipah, M. & Rayan, D.M. (2006). An Annotated Checklist of Herpetofauna of Langkawi Island, Kedah, Malaysia. Malayan Nature Journal 58: pp. 1-15
  24. Ibrahim, J., Nur Hafizah, I., Nurul Dalilah, A. R., Choimmber, T. & Mohd Abdul Muin, M.A. (2012). Amphibian Biodiversity of Gunung Inas Forest Reserve, Kedah, Malaysia. Pertanika Journal of Tropical Agricultural Science 35 (2): pp. 249-256
  25. Shahriza, S. & Ibrahim, J. (2014). A Preliminary Checklist of Amphibians of Ulu Paip Recreational Forest, Kedah, Malaysia. Check List: Journal of Species Lists and Distribution 10 (2): pp. 253-259
  26. Shahriza, S., Ibrahim, J. & Shahrul Anuar, M.S. (2013). Amphibian of Tupah Recreational Forest, Merbok, Kedah, Malaysia. Malaysian Applied Biology Journal 42 (2): pp. 71-75
  27. Taylor, E.H. (1962). The Amphibian Fauna of Thailand. The University of Kansas Science Bulletin , Vol. 43 (8): pp. 265-599
  28. McClure, H.E., Lim, B.L. & Winn, S.E. (1967). Fauna of the Dark Cave, Batu Caves, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. 9 (3): pp. 399-428
  29. Moseley, M., Wyn, L.T. & Tshen, L.T. (2012). Fauna Reported from Batu Caves, Selangor, Malaysia: Annotated Checklist and Bibliography.. 39 (2): pp. 77-92
Book
  1. Heritage of Kubang Badak: Guide to Discover Kubang Badak Biogeotrail, 2018. Pusat Penyelidikan Langkawi, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia & Lembaga Pembangunan Langkawi, Malaysia. pp. 62.
  2. Abdul Rahman, A.R., Mohd Nasir, A.H., Ahmad Fadzil, A.M., Richard, A.M. & Latiff, A. (2014). Hutan Gunung Besar Hantu, Negeri Sembilan: Pengurusan Hutan, Persekitaran Fizikal dan Kepelbagaian Biologi. Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 254.
  3. Abdul Rahman, A.R., Mohd Nasir, A.H., Azmi, N., Nor Hasliza, M.B. & Latiff, A. (2014). Hutan Simpan Gunung Tebu, Terengganu: Pengurusan Hutan, Persekitaran Fizikal dan Kepelbagaian Biologi. Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 343.
  4. Lee Grismer, L. (2005). Amphibians and Reptiles of the Tioman Archipelago, Malaysia. Forestry Department Peninsular Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 215.
  5. Norhayati, A., Senawi, J. & Lim, B.L. (2005). A Pocket Guide: Amphibians of Ulu Muda Forest Reserve, Kedah. Forestry Department Peninsular Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 120.
  6. Mohammad Khairi, A (2007). Taman Negara Pulau Pinang: Sinar Mutiara Belantara. Jabatan Perlindungan Hidupan Liar dan Taman Negara, Malaysia. pp. 112.
  7. Abdul Rahman, A.R., Mohd Nasir, A.H., Mohamed Zin, Y., Richard, A.M. & Latiff, A. (2013). Banjaran Bintang Gunung Inas, Kedah: Pengurusan Hutan, Persekitaran Fizikal dan Kepelbagaian Biologi. Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 245.
  8. Nee, T. A. & Nordin, N. (2018). Compendium of Facts and Figures. 3rd Edition, Volume 3. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Malaysia. pp. 174.
  9. Suhaila, A.H. & Nik Ahmad Irwan Izzauddin, N. H. (2014). Biodiversity of Gunung Ledang Mountaineering The Nature. School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia and Johor National Parks Corporation, Malaysia. pp. 165.
  10. Norhayati, A., Senawi, J. & Lim, B.L. (2004). A Photographic Guide To Amphibians of Endau Rompin State Park, Pahang. Forestry Department Peninsular Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 59.
  11. Norhayati, A. (2017). Frogs and Toads of Malaysia: Malaysia Biodiversity Information System (MyBIS). Penerbit UKM, Bangi, Malaysia. pp. 101. — [ eBook (EPUB) | Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  12. Phang, S.M., Affendi, Y.A., Ooi, J.L.S. & Haji, A.J.M. (2008). Natural History of The Pulau Tioman Group of Islands. Institute of Ocean and Earth Sciences (IOES), University of Malaya, Malaysia. pp. 292.
  13. Praveena, B.K. & Maria Arlene, J.A.S. (2013). Compendium of Facts and Figures. 2nd Edition. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Malaysia. pp. 161.
  14. Razani, U., Koh, H.L., Nik Mohd. Shah, N.M., Damanhuri, A. & Latiff, A. (2010). Hutan Simpan Bintang Hijau, Perak: Pengurusan Hutan, Persekitaran Fizikal dan Kepelbagaian Biologi. Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 281.
  15. Mohd. Paiz, K., Norhaidi, Y., Rosilan, S., Norhayati, A. & Latiff, A. (2016). Taman Rimba Kenong, Pahang: The Central Gem of Peninsular Malaysia. Jabatan Perhutanan Negeri Pahang, Malaysia. pp. 135.
  16. Shaharuddin, M.I., Dahalan, H.T., Abdullah Sani, Shafie, Jalil, M.S., Faridah-Hanum, I. & Latiff, A. (2005). Taman Negeri Gunung Stong, Kelantan: Pengurusan, Persekitaran Fizikal, Biologi dan Sosio-ekonomi. Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 442.
  17. Sitprija, V. & Suteparuk, S. (2012). Clinical Physiology of Animal Toxins: An Overview. Queen Saovabha Memorial Institute, The Thai Red Cross Society, Thailand. pp. 119.
  18. Inger, R.F. & Stuebing, R.B. (2005). A Field Guide To The Frogs of Borneo, Second Edition. Natural History Publications (Borneo), Malaysia. pp. 133, 209.
Unpublish
  1. Checklist of Biodiversity of Setiu (2019)

Acknowledgements :- Mr. Abdul Razak Mohd Nor Rasid, Mr. Ahmad Hafizuddin Bin Rohim@rahim, Ms. Aida Salihah Binti Abu Bakar, Ms. Ajla Rafidah Baharom, Ms. Aziemah Binti Kinan, Mrs. Azuhaidah Binti Alias, Mrs. Juriah A/p Nibong, Mr. Kaviarasu Munian, Mr. Mohd Ilham Norhakim Lokman, Mr. Muhammad Izzuddin Bin Hazan, Ms. Nor Liyana Binti Hassan, Ms. Norayuni Binti Ramlee, Ms. Norazah Binti Norddin, Prof. Dr. Norhayati Binti Ahmad, Ms. Nur Hazwanie Binti Abd Halim, Ms. Nurfarhana Hizan Binti Hijas, Mr. Tan Kok Kiat, Mrs. Wan Roniza Binti Ismil & Mr. Yasser Mohamed Arifin

Citation :- Phrynoidis asper. Malaysia Biodiversity Information System (MyBIS). https://www.mybis.gov.my/sp/19465. Downloaded on 16 October 2019.

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