Native

Duttaphrynus melanostictus

Asiatic Toad
LC
Least Concern
IUCN Red List
ver 3.1, 2004
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Taxonomy

  • Kingdom
  • Phylum
  • Class
  • Order
  • Family
  • Genus
  • Species
    melanostictus
  • Author
    (Schneider, 1799)
  • Synonym
  • Common
    Asian Common Toad (English), Asian Toad (English), Asiatic Toad (English), Black-spectacled Toad (English), Common Sunda Toad (English), Javanese Toad (English), Katak Puru Biasa (Malay), Katak Sunda Biasa (Malay), Kodok Biasa (Malay) & Kodok Biasa Asia (Malay)
  • Residential
    Native

Gallery  

Adult
Adult
Adult
Body

Description

Duttaphrynus melanostictus is one of the common toads found in open areas along river banks. However, it is uncommon in closed forests. The native range of the this toad stretches from northern Pakistan through Bangladesh, India, Sri Lanka, southern China, Myanmar, Laos, Vietnam, Thailand, Cambodia to Malaysia, Singapore and parts of Indonesia. It is a nocturnal terrestrial species found from sea-level to 2000 m in temperate, tropical and sub-tropical habitats.

Duttaphrynus melanostictus has a distinct rostral head. The tympanum of this species has at least two-third the diameter of the eye. The throat of breeding male is light orange or yellow. It develops cornified pads on inner side of first and second fingers. Also, this species has a large and oval-shaped parotoid gland covered by dark black spots (Norhayati et al., 2005).

Adults are terrestrial and may be found under ground cover, for example, rocks, leaf-litter and logs, and are also associated with human habitations. The larvae are found in still and slow-moving water bodies (IUCN, 2016).

There are no major threats to this very adaptable species. Though there is international pet trade for this species, but it is not at a major threat level. Also, it is eaten locally in northern Thailand (IUCN, 2016). 

Habits

  Habit
Nocturnal   —   Active during the night

Habitats

No Description Suitability Seasonality
1
Artificial - Aquatic → Aquaculture Ponds
Marginal Unknown
2
Artificial - Aquatic → Canals and Drainage Channels, Ditches
Suitable Unknown
3
Artificial - Aquatic → Excavations (open)
Suitable Unknown
4
Artificial - Aquatic → Irrigated Land [includes irrigation channels]
Suitable Unknown
5
Artificial - Aquatic → Ponds [below 8 ha]
Suitable Unknown
6
Artificial - Aquatic → Seasonally Flooded Agricultural Land
Suitable Unknown
7
Artificial - Aquatic → Wastewater Treatment Areas
Marginal Unknown
8
Artificial - Aquatic → Water Storage Areas [over 8 ha]
Suitable Unknown
9
Artificial - Terrestrial → Arable Land
Suitable Unknown
10
Artificial - Terrestrial → Pastureland
Suitable Unknown
11
Artificial - Terrestrial → Plantations
Suitable Unknown
12
Artificial - Terrestrial → Rural Gardens
Suitable Unknown
13
Artificial - Terrestrial → Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest
Suitable Unknown
14
Artificial - Terrestrial → Urban Areas
Suitable Unknown
15
Forest → Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Forest Vegetation Above High Tide Level
Marginal Unknown
16
Forest → Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland Forest
Marginal Unknown
17
Forest → Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane Forest
Marginal Unknown
18
Grassland → Subtropical/Tropical Dry Lowland Grassland
Suitable Unknown
19
Grassland → Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded Lowland Grassland
Suitable Unknown
20
Shrubland → Subtropical/Tropical Dry Shrubland
Marginal Unknown
21
Shrubland → Subtropical/Tropical Moist Shrubland
Marginal Unknown
22
Wetlands → Permanent Freshwater Lakes [over 8 ha]
Marginal Unknown
23
Wetlands → Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools [under 8 ha]
Suitable Unknown
24
Wetlands → Permanent Rivers, Streams, Creeks [includes waterfalls]
Suitable Unknown
25
Wetlands → Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools [under 8 ha]
Suitable Unknown
References : http://www.iucnredlist.org/technical-documents/classification-schemes/habitats-classification-scheme-ver3

Assessment

Location

by State Location
  • Johor 1
  • Kedah 5
  • Pahang 3
  • Terengganu 1
Based on publications, specimens, and images

Specimen

Collection Center Total
38

Biodiversity Experts

Profile
Amirrudin Bin Ahmad (Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT)
  • Amphibians
  • Dragonflies and Damselflies
  • Fishes
  • Reptiles
  • Biodiversity
  • Data Analysis
  • Digital Sequence Information (DSI)
  • Living Modified Organism (LMO)
  • Marine & Coastal
  • Protected Areas
  • Invasive Alien Species
  • PM
Awang Noor Abd. Ghani (Prof. Dr.)
Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM)
  • Amphibians (Ecology)
  • Biodiversity
  • Data Analysis
  • Economics
  • Ecosystems
  • Environment
  • Forest
  • PM
Kaviarasu Munian (Mr.)
Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM)
  • Reptiles (Ecology)
  • Amphibians (Ecology)
  • Fishes (Ecology)
  • PM
Lim Boo Liat (Dr.)
Academy of Sciences Malaysia (ASM)
  • Reptiles (Ecology)
  • Rodents (Ecology)
  • Amphibians (Ecology)
  • Biodiversity
  • Ecosystems
  • Invasive Alien Species
Mohamad Rosni Bin Othman (Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT)
  • Amphibians
  • Coral Reefs
  • Turtles
  • Amphibians
  • Law and Policy
  • Management
  • Marine & Coastal
  • PM
  • W
Mohd Abdul Muin Bin Md Akil (Mr.)
Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM)
  • Amphibians
  • Birds
  • Reptiles
  • Snakes
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Evolution
  • Genetics
  • Molecular
  • Protected Areas
  • Climate Change
  • Invasive Alien Species
Teo Eng Wah (Dr.)
University of Malaya (UM)
  • Reptiles
  • Amphibians
  • Invasive Alien Species
PM - Peninsular Malaysia; SBH - Sabah; SWK - Sarawak; SEA - Southeast Asia; W - World;

References

Article
  1. Ibrahim, J., Nur Hafizah, I., Nurul Dalilah, A. R., Choimmber, T. & Mohd Abdul Muin, M.A. (2012). Amphibian Biodiversity of Gunung Inas Forest Reserve, Kedah, Malaysia. Pertanika Journal of Tropical Agricultural Science 35 (2): pp. 249-256
  2. Das, I., Jankowski, A., Makmor, M.I.B. & Haas, A. (2007). Species diversity, elevational distribution and reproductive modes in an amphibian community at the Matang Range, Sarawak (Borneo). Mitt. Hamb. Zoo. Mus. Inst. 104: pp. 141-174
  3. Lee Grismer, L., Chan, K.O., Grismer, J.L., Wood Jr., P.L. & Norhayati, A. (2010). A Checklist of the Herpetofauna of the Banjaran Bintang, Peninsular Malaysia. Russian Journal of Herpetology 17 (2): pp. 147-160
  4. Lee Grismer, L., Youmans, T.M., Wood Jr., P.L. & Grismer, J.L. (2006). Checklist Of The Herpetofauna Of The Seribuat Archipelago, West Malaysia With Comments On Biogeography, Natural History, and Adaptive Types. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 54 (1): pp. 157-180
  5. Quah, E.S.H., Mohd Abdul Muin, M.A., Nur Amira, A.R., Fatim Syakirah, M., Shahrul Anuar, M.S. & Lee Grismer, L. (2013). Species Diversity of Herpetofauna of Bukit Panchor State Park, Penang, Peninsular Malaysia. Malayan Nature Journal 64 (4): pp. 193-211
  6. Daicus, B. & Hashim, R. (2005). Amphibians of the Lubuk Tapah and Adjacent Areas in Southwestern Endau-Rompin National Park, Johor, Malaysia. The Forests and Biodiversity of Selai Endau-Rompin. pp. 199-203
  7. Ibrahim, J., Yap, C.H., Hurzaid, A. & Abu Bakar, A. (2014). Amphibian Density and Diversity in a Disturbed Habitat in Belum Temengor Forest Complex, Perak, Malaysia. Journal of Wildlife and Parks 28: pp. 141-143
  8. Shahriza, S. & Ibrahim, J. (2014). A Preliminary Checklist of Amphibians of Ulu Paip Recreational Forest, Kedah, Malaysia. Check List: Journal of Species Lists and Distribution 10 (2): pp. 253-259
  9. Shahriza, S. & Ibrahim, J. (2012). The Amphibian Diversity of Bukit Jana, Taiping, Perak. Tropical Life Sciences Research (TSLR) 23 (2): pp. 49-57
  10. Quah, E.S.H., Shahrul Anuar, M.S., Mohd Abdul Muin, M.A., Chan, K.O., Grismer, J.L. & Lee Grismer, L. (2011). Preliminary Checklist of the Herpetofauna of Jerejak Island, Penang, Malaysia. Malayan Nature Journal 63 (3): pp. 595-600
  11. Lim, K.K.P. & Lim, L.J. (1999). The Terrestrial Herpetofauna of Pulau Tioman, Peninsular Malaysia. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Supplements (6): pp. 131-155
  12. Ibrahim, J., Hurzaid, A., Shahriza, S., Ibrahim, N.H., Awang, Z., Majid, N.A. & Zaaba, N.H.C. (2013). Updated Checklist of Amphibians of Pulau Jerejak, Penang, Peninsular Malaysia. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 91: pp. 36-40
  13. Ibrahim, J., Awang, Z., Shahriza, S., Shahrul Anuar, M.S., Ibrahim, N.H., Hurzaid, A., Rahim, N.D.A., Min, M.A. & Ismail, A. (2012). Checklist of the Herpetofauna of Bukit Perangin Forest Reserve, Kedah, Malaysia. Sains Malaysiana 41 (6): pp. 691-696
  14. Chan, K.O., Van Rooijen, J., Lee Grismer, L., Belabut, D., Jamaludin, H., Gregory, R., Norhayati, A. & Mohd Abdul Muin, M.A. (2010). First report on the herpetofauna of Pulau Pangkor, Perak, Malaysia. Russian Journal of Herpetology 17 (2): pp. 139-146 — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  15. Moseley, M., Wyn, L.T. & Tshen, L.T. (2012). Fauna Reported from Batu Caves, Selangor, Malaysia: Annotated Checklist and Bibliography.. 39 (2): pp. 77-92
  16. Nurulhuda, Z., Senawi, J., Musa, F.H., Belabut, D., Chan, K.O., Nor, S.M. & Norhayati, A. (2014). Species composition of Amphibians and Reptiles in Krau Wildlife Reserve, Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia. Check List: Journal of Species Lists and Distribution 10 (2): pp. 335-343 — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  17. Lim, B.L., Noor Alif Wira, O., Chan, K.O., Daicus, B. & Norhayati, A. (2010). An Updated Checklist of the Herpetofauna of Pulau Singa Besar, Langkawi, Peninsular Malaysia. Malaysian Applied Biology Journal 39 (1): pp. 13-23
  18. Savage, A.E., Chan, K.O., Grismer, J.L., Quah, E.S.H., Mohd Abdul Muin, M.A., Norhayati, A., Lenker, M., Lee Grismer, L., Zamudio, K.R. & Shahrul Anuar, M.S. (2011). First Record of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis Infecting Four Frog Families from Peninsular Malaysia. International Association for Ecology and Health (EcoHealth) 8 (1): pp. 121-128
  19. Norshaqinah, A., Muzneena, A.M., Senawi, J. & Norhayati, A. (2018). Distribution and abundance of vertebrate animal road-kills on Pulau Langkawi, Kedah, Peninsular Malaysia. Malayan Nature Journal. : pp. 9
  20. Shahriza, S., Ibrahim, J., Rahim, N.D.A. & Mohd Abdul Muin, M.A. (2011). An Annotated Checklist of the Herpetofauna of Beris Valley, Kedah, Malaysia. Tropical Life Sciences Research (TSLR) 22 (1): pp. 13-25
  21. Shahriza, S., Ibrahim, J., Shahrul Anuar, M.S. & Mohd Abdul Muin, M.A. (2012). Herpetofauna of Peta Area of Endau-Rompin National Park,Johor, Malaysia. Pertanika Journal of Tropical Agricultural Science 35 (3): pp. 553-567
  22. Ibrahim, J., Shahrul Anuar, M.S., Norhayati, A., Nor, S.M., Shahriza, S., Nurul 'Ain, E., Nor Zalipah, M. & Rayan, D.M. (2006). An Annotated Checklist of Herpetofauna of Langkawi Island, Kedah, Malaysia. Malayan Nature Journal 58: pp. 1-15
  23. Taylor, E.H. (1962). The Amphibian Fauna of Thailand. The University of Kansas Science Bulletin , Vol. 43 (8): pp. 265-599
  24. Ibrahim, J., Teoh, C.C., Shahrul Anuar, M.S. & Mohd Abdul Muin, M.A. (2009). Checklist and Simple Identification Key for Frogs and Toads from District IV of The MADA Scheme, Kedah, Malaysia. Tropical Life Sciences Research (TSLR) 20 (2): pp. 49-57
Book
  1. Abdul Rahman, A.R., Mohd Nasir, A.H., Azmi, N., Nor Hasliza, M.B. & Latiff, A. (2014). Hutan Simpan Gunung Tebu, Terengganu: Pengurusan Hutan, Persekitaran Fizikal dan Kepelbagaian Biologi. Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 343.
  2. Abdul Rahman, A.R., Koh, H.L., Muhamad, A., Wan Yusof, W.K. & Latiff, A. (2011). Hutan Simpan Melaka: Pengurusan Hutan, Persekitaran Fizikal, Kepelbagaian Biologi dan Socio-ekonomi. Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 315.
  3. Inger, R.F. & Stuebing, R.B. (2005). A Field Guide To The Frogs of Borneo, Second Edition. Natural History Publications (Borneo), Malaysia. pp. 133, 209.
  4. Abdul Rahman, A.R., Mohd Nasir, A.H., Mohamed Zin, Y., Richard, A.M. & Latiff, A. (2013). Banjaran Bintang Gunung Inas, Kedah: Pengurusan Hutan, Persekitaran Fizikal dan Kepelbagaian Biologi. Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 245.
  5. Lee Grismer, L. (2005). Amphibians and Reptiles of the Tioman Archipelago, Malaysia. Forestry Department Peninsular Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 215.
  6. Maimon, A. (2008). Biodiversity of Sungai Pulai: Ramsar Site, Johor. Earth Observation Centre, Malaysia. pp. 97.
  7. Praveena, B.K. & Maria Arlene, J.A.S. (2013). Compendium of Facts and Figures. 2nd Edition. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Malaysia. pp. 161.
  8. Nee, T. A. & Nordin, N. (2018). Compendium of Facts and Figures. 3rd Edition, Volume 3. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Malaysia. pp. 174.
  9. Norhayati, A. (2017). Frogs and Toads of Malaysia: Malaysia Biodiversity Information System (MyBIS). Penerbit UKM, Bangi, Malaysia. pp. 101. — [ eBook (EPUB) | Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  10. Norhayati, A., Senawi, J. & Lim, B.L. (2005). A Pocket Guide: Amphibians of Ulu Muda Forest Reserve, Kedah. Forestry Department Peninsular Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 120.
Chapter in book
  1. Das, I. & Norsham, S.Y. (2007). Status of Knowledge of The Malaysia Herpetofauna. In Chua, L.S.L., Kirton, L.G. & Saw, L.G. (eds.) Status of Biological Diversity in Malaysia and Threat Assessment of Plant Species in Malaysia: Proceedings of the Seminar and Workshop, 28-30 June 2005. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM). pp. 31-81.
Report
  1. Laporan Program Kajian Inventori dan Pengurusan Hidupan Liar Tahun 2017, Wilayah Persekutuan Putrajaya. Perbadanan Putrajaya & PERHILITAN, Malaysia.

Acknowledgements :- Mr. Abdul Razak Mohd Nor Rasid, Ms. Aida Salihah Binti Abu Bakar, Ms. Aziemah Binti Kinan, Mrs. Azuhaidah Binti Alias, Mr. Badrul Amin Bin Jaffar, Mrs. Juriah A/p Nibong, Mr. Kaviarasu Munian, Ms. Mira Farzana Binti Mohamad Mokhtar, Mr. Muhammad Izzuddin Bin Hazan, Ms. Nor Liyana Binti Hassan, Prof. Dr. Norhayati Binti Ahmad, Ms. Nur Hazwanie Binti Abd Halim, Mr. Tan Kok Kiat, Mrs. Wan Roniza Binti Ismil & Mr. Yasser Mohamed Arifin

Citation :- Duttaphrynus melanostictus. Malaysia Biodiversity Information System (MyBIS). https://www.mybis.gov.my/sp/9966. Downloaded on 20 June 2019.

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