Native

Leptophryne borbonica

Cross Toad
LC
Least Concern
IUCN Red List
ver 3.1, 2014
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Taxonomy

  • Kingdom
  • Phylum
  • Class
  • Order
  • Family
  • Genus
  • Species
    borbonica
  • Author
    (Tschudi, 1838)
  • Synonym
  • Common
    Bourbon Toad (English), Brown Tree Toad (English), Cross Toad (English), Hour-glass Slender Toad (English), Hour-glass Toad (English), Hourglass Toad (English), Java Tree Toad (English), Katak Puru Ramping (Malay), Kodok Jam Pasir (Malay), Slender-legged Toad (English) & Yellow-spotted Tree Toad (English)
  • Residential
    Native

Gallery  

Adult
Adult
Adult
Adult

Description

Leptophryne borbonica is a medium-sized toad with a slender body. Its snout is short and truncate or pointed. This species has small and indistinct parotoid glands. This species has long fingers and its legs with tips swollen into round disks. This toad has no webbing on hand and its toes are half-webbed. The females of this species are typically larger which measured at about 40-47mm snout-vent length (SVL) than the males at about 27-31mm SVL. This species get its common name because it has a black hourglass or 'X' mark on its back. This species can be found in India, Malaysia and Thailand. This species usually found in primary forest between 0-400 m above sea level.

Habitats

No Description Suitability Seasonality
1
Forest → Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland Forest
Suitable Resident
2
Forest → Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane Forest
Suitable Resident
3
Wetlands → Permanent Rivers, Streams, Creeks [includes waterfalls]
Suitable Unknown
References : http://www.iucnredlist.org/technical-documents/classification-schemes/habitats-classification-scheme-ver3

Assessment

Location

by State Location
  • Pahang 2
  • Perak 1
  • Terengganu 1
Based on publications, specimens, and images

Specimen

Collection Center Total
25

Biodiversity Experts

Profile
Amirrudin Bin Ahmad (Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT)
  • Amphibians
  • Dragonflies and Damselflies
  • Fishes
  • Reptiles
  • Biodiversity
  • Data Analysis
  • Digital Sequence Information (DSI)
  • Living Modified Organism (LMO)
  • Marine & Coastal
  • Protected Areas
  • Invasive Alien Species
  • PM
Awang Noor Abd. Ghani (Prof. Dr.)
Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM)
  • Amphibians (Ecology)
  • Biodiversity
  • Data Analysis
  • Economics
  • Ecosystems
  • Environment
  • Forest
  • PM
Kaviarasu Munian (Mr.)
Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM)
  • Reptiles (Ecology)
  • Amphibians (Ecology)
  • Fishes (Ecology)
  • PM
Lim Boo Liat (Dr.)
Academy of Sciences Malaysia (ASM)
  • Reptiles (Ecology)
  • Rodents (Ecology)
  • Amphibians (Ecology)
  • Biodiversity
  • Ecosystems
  • Invasive Alien Species
Mohamad Rosni Bin Othman (Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT)
  • Amphibians
  • Coral Reefs
  • Turtles
  • Amphibians
  • Law and Policy
  • Management
  • Marine & Coastal
  • PM
  • W
Mohd Abdul Muin Bin Md Akil (Mr.)
Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM)
  • Amphibians
  • Birds
  • Reptiles
  • Snakes
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Evolution
  • Genetics
  • Molecular
  • Protected Areas
  • Climate Change
  • Invasive Alien Species
Teo Eng Wah (Dr.)
University of Malaya (UM)
  • Reptiles
  • Amphibians
  • Invasive Alien Species
PM - Peninsular Malaysia; SBH - Sabah; SWK - Sarawak; SEA - Southeast Asia; W - World;

References

Article
  1. Lee Grismer, L., Chan, K.O., Grismer, J.L., Wood Jr., P.L. & Norhayati, A. (2010). A Checklist of the Herpetofauna of the Banjaran Bintang, Peninsular Malaysia. Russian Journal of Herpetology 17 (2): pp. 147-160
  2. Davis, H. R., Klabacka, R. L., Lee Grismer, L., Mohd Abdul Muin, M.A., Quah, E.S.H., Shahrul Anuar, M.S., Sites, J. W. & Wood Jr., P.L. (2016). The Phylogenetic Relationships of a New Stream Toad of the Genus Ansonia Stoliczka, 1870 (Anura: Bufonidae) from a Montane Region in Peninsular Malaysia. Zootaxa 4103 (2): pp. 137-153
  3. Sumarli, A.X., Lee Grismer, L., Mohd Abdul Muin, M.A., Quah, E.S.H. & Shahrul Anuar, M.S. (2015). First Report on the Amphibians and Reptiles of a Remote Mountain, Gunung Tebu in Northeastern Peninsular Malaysia. Check List: The Journal of Biodiversity Data 11 (4): pp. 1679
  4. Nurulhuda, Z., Senawi, J., Musa, F.H., Belabut, D., Chan, K.O., Nor, S.M. & Norhayati, A. (2014). Species composition of Amphibians and Reptiles in Krau Wildlife Reserve, Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia. Check List: Journal of Species Lists and Distribution 10 (2): pp. 335-343 — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  5. Wood Jr., P.L., Chan, K.O., Shahrul Anuar, M.S., Sumarli, A.X., Mohd Abdul Muin, M.A., Quah, E.S.H. & Lee Grismer, L. (2014). A new species of upland Stream Toad of the Genus Ansonia Stoliczka, 1870 (Anura: Bufonidae) from northeastern Peninsular Malaysia. Zootaxa 3764 (4): pp. 427-440
  6. Taylor, E.H. (1962). The Amphibian Fauna of Thailand. The University of Kansas Science Bulletin , Vol. 43 (8): pp. 265-599
  7. Lee Grismer, L., Sukumaran, J., Grismer, J.L., Youmans, T.M., Wood Jr., P.L. & Johnson, R. (2004). Report on the Herpetofauna from the Temengor Forest Reserve, Perak, West Malaysia. Hamadryad 29 (1): pp. 15-32
Book
  1. Shaharuddin, M.I., Dahalan, H.T., Abdullah Sani, Shafie, Jalil, M.S., Faridah-Hanum, I. & Latiff, A. (2005). Taman Negeri Gunung Stong, Kelantan: Pengurusan, Persekitaran Fizikal, Biologi dan Sosio-ekonomi. Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 442.
  2. Inger, R.F. & Stuebing, R.B. (2005). A Field Guide To The Frogs of Borneo, Second Edition. Natural History Publications (Borneo), Malaysia. pp. 133, 209.
  3. Praveena, B.K. & Maria Arlene, J.A.S. (2013). Compendium of Facts and Figures. 2nd Edition. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Malaysia. pp. 161.
  4. Nee, T. A. & Nordin, N. (2018). Compendium of Facts and Figures. 3rd Edition, Volume 3. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Malaysia. pp. 174.
  5. Norhayati, A. (2017). Frogs and Toads of Malaysia: Malaysia Biodiversity Information System (MyBIS). Penerbit UKM, Bangi, Malaysia. pp. 101. — [ eBook (EPUB) | Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  6. Norhayati, A., Senawi, J. & Lim, B.L. (2005). A Pocket Guide: Amphibians of Ulu Muda Forest Reserve, Kedah. Forestry Department Peninsular Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 120.
  7. Norhayati, A., Senawi, J. & Lim, B.L. (2004). A Photographic Guide To Amphibians of Endau Rompin State Park, Pahang. Forestry Department Peninsular Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 59.
  8. Malkmus, R., Mantley, U., Vogel, G., Hoffmann, P. & Kosuch, J. (2002). Amphibians & Reptiles of Mount Kinabalu (North Borneo). Gantner Verlag, Germany. pp. 424.
Chapter in book
  1. Das, I. & Norsham, S.Y. (2007). Status of Knowledge of The Malaysia Herpetofauna. In Chua, L.S.L., Kirton, L.G. & Saw, L.G. (eds.) Status of Biological Diversity in Malaysia and Threat Assessment of Plant Species in Malaysia: Proceedings of the Seminar and Workshop, 28-30 June 2005. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM). pp. 31-81.

Acknowledgements :- Mr. Abdul Razak Mohd Nor Rasid, Ms. Aida Salihah Binti Abu Bakar, Ms. Ainul Aqilah Binti Mohd Nasir, Ms. Ajla Rafidah Baharom, Ms. Aziemah Binti Kinan, Mr. Badrul Amin Bin Jaffar, Prof. Dr. Norhayati Binti Ahmad, Mr. Tan Kok Kiat, Mrs. Wan Roniza Binti Ismil & Mr. Yasser Mohamed Arifin

Citation :- Leptophryne borbonica. Malaysia Biodiversity Information System (MyBIS). https://www.mybis.gov.my/sp/9968. Downloaded on 17 June 2019.

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