Native Animals

Kaloula pulchra

Banded Bullfrog
LC
Least Concern
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Peninsular Malaysia & Sabah ver 3.1, 2022
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SSN 09989
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Taxonomy

The taxonomic status is pending for approval

Gallery  

Description

Kaloula pulchra is a round and squat frog with short, rounded snout. Its hind leg is short and thick. The toes of this species are minimally webbed at the base and blunt at the tips. This species has long fingers with no webbing. The snout-vent length for males ranges from 54mm to 67 mm and for females ranges from 55 mm to 75 mm. The body colour of this species ranges from chocolate to dark brown with scattered dark spots (Norhayati, Senawi & Lim, 2005). This species is widespread and it can be found in Bangladesh, Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Macao, Malaysia, Myanmar, Singapore, Thailand, Taiwan, and Vietnam.

Habits

  Part Habit
 
Fossorial   —   Adapted to digging and life underground.
 
Nocturnal   —   Active during the night

Habitats

No Description Suitability Seasonality
1
Artificial - Aquatic → Canals and Drainage Channels, Ditches
Suitable Unknown
2
Artificial - Aquatic → Excavations (open)
Suitable Unknown
3
Artificial - Aquatic → Irrigated Land [includes irrigation channels]
Suitable Unknown
4
Artificial - Aquatic → Ponds [below 8 ha]
Suitable Unknown
5
Artificial - Terrestrial → Arable Land
Suitable Unknown
6
Artificial - Terrestrial → Plantations
Suitable Unknown
7
Artificial - Terrestrial → Rural Gardens
Suitable Unknown
8
Artificial - Terrestrial → Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest
Suitable Unknown
9
Artificial - Terrestrial → Urban Areas
Suitable Unknown
10
Forest → Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland Forest
Suitable Unknown
11
Grassland → Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded Lowland Grassland
Suitable Unknown
12
Shrubland → Subtropical/Tropical Moist Shrubland
Suitable Unknown
13
Wetlands → Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands [generally over 8 ha]
Suitable Unknown
14
Wetlands → Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools [under 8 ha]
Suitable Unknown
References : http://www.iucnredlist.org/technical-documents/classification-schemes/habitats-classification-scheme-ver3

Assessment

Year Published Assessment Red List Category Version
2022 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Least Concern (LC)
Peninsular Malaysia & Sabah
3.1
2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
Least Concern (LC)
3.1

Location

by State Location
  • Johore 1
  • Kedah 5
  • Pahang 3
  • Terengganu 1
  • Federal Territories of Putrajaya 2
Based on publications, specimens, and images

Biodiversity Experts

Profile
Amirrudin Bin Ahmad (Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT)
  • Amphibians
  • Dragonflies and Damselflies
  • Fishes
  • Reptiles
  • Biodiversity
  • Data Analysis
  • Digital Sequence Information (DSI)
  • Living Modified Organism (LMO)
  • Marine & Coastal
  • Protected Areas
  • Invasive Alien Species
  • PM
Awang Noor Abd. Ghani (Prof. Dr.)
Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM)
  • Amphibians (Ecology)
  • Biodiversity
  • Data Analysis
  • Economics
  • Ecosystems
  • Environment
  • Forest
  • PM
Kaviarasu Munian (Mr.)
Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM)
  • Reptiles (Ecology)
  • Amphibians (Ecology)
  • Fishes (Ecology)
  • PM
Lim Boo Liat (Dr.)
  • Reptiles (Ecology)
  • Rodents (Ecology)
  • Amphibians (Ecology)
  • Biodiversity
  • Ecosystems
  • Invasive Alien Species
Mohamad Azani Alias (Assoc. Prof. Dr.)
Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM)
  • Vascular (Taxonomy)
  • Vascular
  • Vascular
  • Amphibians
  • Amphibians
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Climate Change
  • Protected Areas
  • Forest
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
Mohamad Rosni Bin Othman (Dr.)
Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT)
  • Amphibians
  • Coral Reefs
  • Turtle, Tortoise, and Terrapin
  • Amphibians
  • Law and Policy
  • Management
  • Marine & Coastal
  • PM
  • W
Mohammad Shahfiz Azman (Mr.)
Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM)
  • Amphibians
  • Mammals
  • Birds
  • Amphibians
  • Reptiles
  • Awareness
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Ecosystems
  • Environment
  • Forest
  • Landscape
  • Law and Policy
  • Management
  • Protected Areas
  • Science
  • Systematics
  • Invasive Alien Species
  • Like-Minded Megadiverse Countries (LMMC)
  • National Policy on Biological Diversity
  • Policy
  • Research and Development (R&D)
  • Zoonotic
  • PM
  • SBH
  • SWK
  • SEA
Mohd Abdul Muin Bin Md Akil (Mr.)
Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM)
  • Amphibians
  • Birds
  • Reptiles
  • Snakes
  • Biodiversity
  • Conservation
  • Evolution
  • Genetics
  • Molecular
  • Protected Areas
  • Climate Change
  • Invasive Alien Species
Teo Eng Wah (Dr.)
University of Malaya (UM)
  • Reptiles
  • Amphibians
  • Invasive Alien Species
PM - Peninsular Malaysia; SBH - Sabah; SWK - Sarawak; SEA - Southeast Asia; W - World;

References

Article
  1. Amit, B., Tuen, A.A., Pui, Y.M. & Harun, M.H. (2018). Checklist of Amphibians and Reptiles at the Malaysian Palm Oil Board Research Station, Kluang, Johor. Oil Palm Bulletin. (76), 8-14. http://palmoilis.mpob.gov.my/publications/OPB/opb76-bettycopa.pdf
  2. Das, I. (2006). Crocker Range National Park, Sabah, as a refuge for Borneo's montane herpetofauna. Amphibian and Reptile Conservation 4 (1), 3-11(e15)
  3. Ibrahim, J., Yap, C.H., Hurzaid, A. & Abu Bakar, A. (2014). Amphibian Density and Diversity in a Disturbed Habitat in Belum Temengor Forest Complex, Perak, Malaysia. Journal of Wildlife and Parks 28, 141-143
  4. Ibrahim, J., Shahrul Anuar, M.S., Norhayati, A., Nor, S.M., Shahriza, S., Nurul 'Ain, E., Nor Zalipah, M. & Rayan, D.M. (2006). An Annotated Checklist of Herpetofauna of Langkawi Island, Kedah, Malaysia. Malayan Nature Journal 58, 1-15
  5. Ibrahim, J., Teoh, C.C., Shahrul Anuar, M.S. & Mohd Abdul Muin, M.A. (2009). Checklist and Simple Identification Key for Frogs and Toads from District IV of The MADA Scheme, Kedah, Malaysia. Tropical Life Sciences Research (TSLR) 20 (2), 49-57
  6. Ibrahim, J., Hurzaid, A., Shahriza, S., Ibrahim, N.H., Awang, Z., Majid, N.A. & Zaaba, N.H.C. (2013). Updated Checklist of Amphibians of Pulau Jerejak, Penang, Peninsular Malaysia. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 91, 36-40
  7. Lee Grismer, L., Youmans, T.M., Wood Jr., P.L. & Grismer, J.L. (2006). Checklist Of The Herpetofauna Of The Seribuat Archipelago, West Malaysia With Comments On Biogeography, Natural History, and Adaptive Types. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 54 (1), 157-180
  8. Lim, B.L., Noor Alif Wira, O., Chan, K.O., Daicus, B. & Norhayati, A. (2010). An Updated Checklist of the Herpetofauna of Pulau Singa Besar, Langkawi, Peninsular Malaysia. Malaysian Applied Biology Journal 39 (1), 13-23. https://www.researchgate.net
  9. Lim, K.K.P. & Lim, L.J. (1999). The Terrestrial Herpetofauna of Pulau Tioman, Peninsular Malaysia. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Supplements (6), 131-155
  10. Moseley, M., Wyn, L.T. & Tshen, L.T. (2012). Fauna Reported from Batu Caves, Selangor, Malaysia: Annotated Checklist and Bibliography. 39 (2), 77-92
  11. Nurulhuda, Z., Senawi, J., Musa, F.H., Daicus, B., Chan, K.O., Nor, S.M. & Norhayati, A. (2014). Species composition of Amphibians and Reptiles in Krau Wildlife Reserve, Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia. Check List: Journal of Species Lists and Distribution 10 (2), 335-343 — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  12. Quah, E.S.H., Shahrul Anuar, M.S., Mohd Abdul Muin, M.A., Chan, K.O., Grismer, J.L. & Lee Grismer, L. (2011). Preliminary Checklist of the Herpetofauna of Jerejak Island, Penang, Malaysia. Malayan Nature Journal 63 (3), 595-600
  13. Quah, E.S.H., Mohd Abdul Muin, M.A., Nur Amira, A.R., Fatim Syakirah, M., Shahrul Anuar, M.S. & Lee Grismer, L. (2013). Species Diversity of Herpetofauna of Bukit Panchor State Park, Penang, Peninsular Malaysia. Malayan Nature Journal 64 (4), 193-211
  14. Savage, A.E., Chan, K.O., Grismer, J.L., Quah, E.S.H., Mohd Abdul Muin, M.A., Norhayati, A., Lenker, M., Lee Grismer, L., Zamudio, K.R. & Shahrul Anuar, M.S. (2011). First Record of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis Infecting Four Frog Families from Peninsular Malaysia. International Association for Ecology and Health (EcoHealth) 8 (1), 121-128
  15. Shahriza, S., Ibrahim, J., Shahrul Anuar, M.S. & Mohd Abdul Muin, M.A. (2012). Herpetofauna of Peta Area of Endau-Rompin National Park, Johor, Malaysia. Pertanika Journal of Tropical Agricultural Science 35 (3), 553-567
  16. Shahriza, S. & Ibrahim, J. (2012). The Amphibian Diversity of Bukit Jana, Taiping, Perak. Tropical Life Sciences Research (TSLR) 23 (2), 49-57
  17. Shahrudin, S. & Ibrahim, J. (2014). The Amphibian Checklist of Bukit Larut, Perak, Malaysia. Pertanika Journal of Tropical Agricultural Science 37 (1), 87-99. http://www.pertanika.upm.edu.my/Pertanika%20PAPERS/JTAS%20Vol.%2037%20(1)%20Feb.%202014%20(View%20Full%20Journal).pdf
  18. Taylor, E.H. (1962). The Amphibian Fauna of Thailand. The University of Kansas Science Bulletin , Vol. 43 (8), 265-599
Book
  1. Abdul Rahman, A.R., Mohd Nasir, A.H., Mohamed Zin, Y., Richard, A.M. & Latiff, A. (2013). Banjaran Bintang Gunung Inas, Kedah: Pengurusan Hutan, Persekitaran Fizikal dan Kepelbagaian Biologi. Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 245.
  2. Abdul Rahman, A.R., Koh, H.L., Muhamad, A., Wan Yusof, W.K. & Latiff, A. (2011). Hutan Simpan Melaka: Pengurusan Hutan, Persekitaran Fizikal, Kepelbagaian Biologi dan Socio-ekonomi. Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 315.
  3. Inger, R.F. & Stuebing, R.B. (2005). A Field Guide To The Frogs of Borneo, Second Edition. Natural History Publications (Borneo), Malaysia. pp. 133, 209.
  4. Lee Grismer, L. (2005). Amphibians and Reptiles of the Tioman Archipelago, Malaysia. Forestry Department Peninsular Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 215.
  5. Maimon, A. (2008). Biodiversity of Sungai Pulai: Ramsar Site, Johor. Earth Observation Centre, Malaysia. pp. 97.
  6. Nee, T. A. & Norhayati, N. (2018). Compendium of Facts and Figures. 3rd Edition, Volume 3. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Malaysia. pp. 174.
  7. Norhayati, A., Senawi, J. & Lim, B.L. (2005). A Pocket Guide: Amphibians of Ulu Muda Forest Reserve, Kedah. Forestry Department Peninsular Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 120.
  8. Norhayati, A., Senawi, J. & Lim, B.L. (2004). A Photographic Guide To Amphibians of Endau Rompin State Park, Pahang. Forestry Department Peninsular Malaysia, Malaysia. pp. 59.
  9. Norhayati, A. & Chong, M.H.N. (2016). Amphibians, Reptiles and Mammals of Putrajaya Lake and Wetland. Perbadanan Putrajaya, Malaysia. pp. 100.
  10. Norhayati, A. (2017). Frogs and Toads of Malaysia: Malaysia Biodiversity Information System (MyBIS). Penerbit UKM, Bangi, Malaysia. pp. 101. — [ eBook (EPUB) ] — [ | Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  11. Phang, S.M., Affendi, Y.A., Ooi, J.L.S. & Haji, A.J.M. (2008). Natural History of The Pulau Tioman Group of Islands. Institute of Ocean and Earth Sciences (IOES), University of Malaya, Malaysia. pp. 292.
  12. Praveena, B.K. & Maria Arlene, J.A.S. (2013). Compendium of Facts and Figures. 2nd Edition. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Malaysia. pp. 161.
Chapter in book
  1. Das, I. & Norsham, S.Y. (2007). Status of Knowledge of The Malaysia Herpetofauna. In Chua, L.S.L., Kirton, L.G. & Saw, L.G. (Eds.), Status of Biological Diversity in Malaysia and Threat Assessment of Plant Species in Malaysia: Proceedings of the Seminar and Workshop, 28-30 June 2005. Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM). pp. 31-81.
Magazine/Bulletin
  1. TRAFFIC Bulletin, Vol. 32 (2), 10/2020. TRAFFIC
Report
  1. Laporan Inventori Hidupan Liar Putrajaya 2019. Kementerian Air, Tanah dan Sumber Asli (KATS) dan Jabatan Perlindungan Hidupan Liar dan Taman Negara Semenanjung Malaysia (PERHILITAN), Malaysia. — [ Adobe PDF (PDF) ]
  2. Laporan Program Kajian Inventori dan Pengurusan Hidupan Liar Tahun 2017, Wilayah Persekutuan Putrajaya. Perbadanan Putrajaya & PERHILITAN, Malaysia.
Unpublish
  1. Checklist of Biodiversity of Setiu (2019)

Acknowledgements :- Mr. Abdul Razak Mohd Nor Rasid, Ms. Aida Salihah Binti Abu Bakar, Ms. Anis Syafiqah Binti Mohamad Amir Hamzah, Mrs. Aziemah Binti Kinan, Mr. Badrul Amin Bin Jaffar, Mrs. Juriah A/p Nibong, Mr. Muhammad Izzuddin Bin Hazan, Ms. Nor Liyana Binti Hassan, Ms. Norazah Binti Norddin, Mrs. Nur Hazwanie Binti Abd Halim, Ms. Nurfadzilah Bt Azmi, Ms. Siti Zubaidah Binti Abdul Latif, Mr. Tan Kok Kiat & Mr. Yasser Mohamed Arifin

Photo credit :- Norhayati Binti Ahmad

Species Citation :- Kaloula pulchra. Malaysia Biodiversity Information System (MyBIS). Accessed via https://www.mybis.gov.my/sp/9989. [Retrieved 22 March 2023].

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